PVC地板安装 |  亚麻地板安装 |  橡胶地板安装 |  PVC墙塑安装 |  地板安装案例 | 
当前位置: 主页 > 亚麻地板安装 >
亚麻地板安装
目录
1. 地板简介
2. 亚麻地板分类
2.1 DIN EN 548 弹性地面覆盖物—朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
2.2 DIN EN 686 弹性地面覆盖物—泡沫材料底面上的朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
2.3 DIN EN 687 弹性地面覆盖物—软木上的朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
2.4 DIN EN 688 弹性地面覆盖物—软木亚麻地板规范
3. 亚麻地面覆盖物用粘合剂
3.1 粘合剂类型
3.1.1 分散粘合剂
3.1.2 接触型粘合剂
3.1.3其他粘合剂
4. 亚麻地面覆盖物安装
4.1基层
4.2 储存及调温
4.3 安装条件
4.4 安装
4.4.1 薄板状亚麻地面覆盖物的安装
4.4.1.1 亚麻办切割
4.4.1.2 地板端头切割
4.4.1.3切边
4.4.1.4粘结
4.4.2 片状安装
4.4.3型材粘结
4.5 接缝密封
4.5.1 接缝热焊接
4.5.2 使用双组份接缝密封剂进行接缝密封
4.6 特殊地面覆盖物结构
4.7 清洁和维护
5. 相关标准及技术简介
5.1 工业安全
5.2 亚麻地板标准
5.3 亚麻地板粘合剂标准
5.4 地板安装工程标准
5.5 其他标准及技术简介
5.6 参考文献及注释
1.简介
本技术简介就亚麻地板的安装材料选择向安装人员给予了建议。内容涉及根据相关欧洲标准分类的各种亚麻地板。安装亚麻地板时,必须考虑地面覆盖物的具体特征。亚麻地板可为薄板状或地板砖状,采用全粘法安装。
本简介不涉及特殊结构上的亚麻地板粘接,例如运动场地板结构粘接、工业地板粘接、亚麻与软木或泡沫材料底面或导电材料粘接在—起。
亚麻地板主要由可再生原材料制成,例如氧化亚麻油、树脂、软木及,或木粉,在压光工序中以适当方式将这些材料混合之后,再将其熔凝到载板上。将由此制得的板材放在加热干燥室内养护,直到达到相应标准的要求。安装期间,必须考虑亚麻地板的诸多特征性能。
在安装/粘接期间,亚麻地板可能与空气、基层或粘合剂中的水分发生反应,从而导致地板材料的尺寸发生变化。
一般备注:
弹性地面覆盖物上难免出现因重负荷物引起的、在聚光灯下可见的残留压痕。但是,通过选用正确的粘合剂、适量涂覆(使用TKB推荐的缺口尺寸适当的齿形刮刀)、正确处理、选择适当的座椅/家具滑块(大而平整的接触面、无尖锐边缘)及/或在可移动的家具下设置适用的压力分配衬底或者使用滚轮(如EN1 2529所述W型),可以最大程度地减少所述压痕。
这其中还包括家具使用必须与地板构造相符。
2.亚麻地板分类
2.1  DIN EN 548弹性地面覆盖物——朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
2.2  DIN EN 686弹性地面覆盖物——泡沫材料底面上的朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
2.3  DIN EN 687弹性地面覆盖物——软木上的朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
2.4  DIN EN 688弹性地面覆盖物——软木亚麻地板规范
3. 亚麻地面覆盖物用粘合剂
根据成分、处理类型、固化特性及基层要求,对不同粘合剂类型予以划分。
3.1 粘合剂类型
建议最好是选用排放极低的EMICODE EC1/EC1 R类粘合剂。仅使用经地板制造商认可能够用于亚麻地面覆盖物粘接的粘合剂。一定要严格遵循用量或刮刀缺口尺寸方面的说明。
最好是使用不合溶剂、排放极低且用于单面涂抹的EMICODE EC1分散粘合剂。或者,也可以代之以接触型或干型粘合剂(例如,用于构造基座)、双组分分散.水泥基粘合剂或反应性树脂粘合剂(例如用于非吸水性基层上或用于承载负荷较大的情况).
3.1.1  分散粘合剂
分散粘合剂是将有机粘合材料分散在水、无机填料及添加剂中而得到。固化基于物理过程(即粘合剂中所含的水蒸发)而发生。分散粘合剂的性能主要受安装环境条件的影响。高温及,或低湿度会加速固化,低温及,或高湿度会推迟固化。
在粘接亚麻地面覆盖物时,只能将分散粘合剂用于湿润粘合剂层涂覆。此时需要使用吸水性基层。使用TKB齿形刮刀,在预制基层上涂抹粘合剂。分散粘合剂在开罐后的存放期(开放时间)较短,应在粘合剂固化前,将亚麻地面覆盖物放在粘合剂层中。若超过开放时间,则湿度不够,会导致粘接强度不够(例如出现中空区)。
3.1.2接触型粘合剂
溶剂基接触型粘合剂由已溶解的有机粘合材料、高挥发性溶剂(高达80%)、无机填料及添加剂构成。接触型分散粘合剂主要通过将天然及合成橡胶分散在无极无机填料及添加剂中的方式得到。
仅利用接触粘合法,来处理接触型分散粘合剂。在两面(即预制基层面以及地面覆盖物底面)均涂抹这种粘合剂,且应在安装地面覆盖物之前,风干至足够程度。这些粘合剂主要用于小面积安装,例如楼梯上的底板和地板的粘接。
注:
出于职业健康与安全方面的考虑,德国Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV)(有害物质法令)以及德国Technische Regeln Gefahrstoffe (TRGS)(有害物质技术条例)61 0中严格限制了对溶剂含量高的粘合剂的使用。无论何时,都可以使周不合溶剂的粘合剂来粘接亚麻地板。
3.1.3其它粘合剂
反应性树脂粘合剂由具有化学反应性的有机粘合材料、无机填料及添加剂构成。反应性树脂粘合剂主要为基于聚氨酯或环氧树脂的双组分系统,通过化学反应实现固化。因此,其罐内存放期或处理期均较短。这些粘合剂的固化速度主要受粘合剂、基层、地面覆盖物和环境的温度的影响。双组分反应性树脂粘合剂需要完全遵循混合比要求,并应小心混合。
双组分分散/水泥基粉状粘合剂由液体组分、水泥及,或石膏基粉末组分、填料及添加剂组成,其中所述液体组分以分散于水中的有机粘合剂为基础。除物理干燥外,通过与粉末组分发生反应的方式,以化学方式将粘合剂内的大部分水加以结合。通过化学方式将水
结合,从而减少了排放至环境(这里指地面覆盖物和基层)中的水,并加速了固化。因此,这些粘合剂还可用于非吸水性或吸水不佳的基层上。在混合结束后,便会立即发生化学反应。这些产品的罐内存放期和开罐后的存放期均较短。
干型粘合剂呈带状,其两面均有粘性,宽度不定。干型粘合剂在交货时已经过制造商预先干燥,因此无需因风干、固化及干燥而耗费时间。在正确安装后,即可承重。在用于底板和楼梯时,必须咨询干型粘合剂制造商和亚麻地面覆盖物制造商。
4. 亚麻地面覆盖物安装
4.1  基层
TKB技术简介8“用于安装地面覆盖物和镶木地板的基层评估和制备”以及BEB技术简介(基层的评估和制备。弹性及纺织地面覆盖物、复合地板、镶木地板及铺地木板的安装。受热及非受热地板结构)包含所需测试的相关说明详情及规范。
应采用专业的方法,将亚麻地面覆盖物粘接在符合标准要求(即,经过评估且正确制备)的基层的整个表面上(参见(地面覆盖物作业)第3.1.1、3.3和3.4.3节)。安装底板时,墙面必须足够干燥、足够平整。
4.2  储存及调温
应将亚麻地板储存在干燥的地方,并应成卷竖立存放。在根据卷号依次拆开卷材后,对板材进行预切割,每米切割长度放宽1 cm,或者切割至比安装所需长度放宽10 cm(最多)的长度。然后,在粘接前,将板材以耐磨面朝外的方式再次卷起(卷松点),然后竖立放置在安装室内,放置时间至少为24小时,以使其充分适应室内环境条件。室内温度至少为18℃。湿度优选为40 - 65%。
若亚麻地板为地板砖状,则只能根据制造商的说明,将其放在水平表面上调温。
4.3  安装条件
应遵循下述有关温度和相对湿度的阈值:
·相对湿度40 - 65%
·室温至少18 ℃
·所用材料(例如地板、粘合剂)温度至少18 ℃
·基层温度至少15℃,若基层会受热,则受热后的最高温度不得超过22℃
根据安装材料对固化、干燥和反应时间的要求,在安装前、安装期间以及安装结束后7天内,应一直保持上述室内环境条件。在粘合剂完全固化前,应对安装区进行保护,使其免受阳光直射或其它热影响因素的影响。必要时,在安装人员要求采取这些措施或宣布由安装人员执行这些措施后,客户应确保采职了这些必要措施。
铺开的板材应立即粘接到整个表面上。在涂抹分散粘合剂之前,必须将致密的非吸水性基层(例如,液体沥青或已密封的砂浆)找平至足够的厚度(建议:干层厚度为2-3mm)。
4.4  安装
4.4.1  薄板状亚麻地面覆盖物的安装
原则上,不得弯曲亚麻地面覆盖物,否则可能导致其断裂。在粘接前,折叠板材时,折叠区一定要保持足够大的半径。
4.4.1.1亚麻板切割
切割板材时,一定要考虑的是,地板可能发生与材料相关的尺寸变化,尤其是在接缝和踢脚板区。在粘接期间,亚麻地面覆盖物在长度上会收缩,在宽度上会膨胀,尤其是在使用分散型粘合剂时。
4.4.1.2地板端头切割
对于地板端头而言,必须避免纵向的长度变化,以便进行精确切割。在这些睛况下,若板长超过6米,则预留1.5米长的地板暂时不粘贴。一旦中间粘贴部位的粘合剂达到足够的强度且板材锁固到位,则将剩余部分粘接并放入到粘合剂层中。
对于较短的板材以及长板的板头而言,在接下来不直接接合的情况下,将亚麻板折叠铺满室内一半的面积。然后,涂抹分散粘合剂,将板材放在粘合剂层中,并向下摩擦按压。这之后,才精确切割板头。然后根据规定,将板材安装在室内的另一半面积上。
只有在将板材放入粘合剂层之后,才能安装、切割端缝。
4.4.1.3 切边
板材的两个边缘均需要切割。即使随后需要使用焊丝来焊接接缝,第一边缘(通常是板材的同侧)的被切割长度依然应至少为1.5 -2 cm。切割之后,板材边缘必须完全位于基层上,与基层对齐。否则,必须重新切割边缘。在涂抹粘合剂前,应使用合适的亚麻板边缘切割刀,对第一边缘进行切割。在将板材放入粘合剂层中(见4.4.1.4)之后,再切割第二板材边缘
(接缝切割)。
切边
图1:切边
4.4.1.4 粘结
应根据4.4.1.2第一节的说明,对必须紧密配合到相邻建筑部分(例如门槛及门框)的半块板材进行粘接。对于长而窄的走廊而言,应沿着长度方向粘接,因此同样可能需要将板材横向折叠。在涂抹粘合剂(通常使用尺寸为B1的TKB齿形刮刀)之后,立即以无张
力的方式,将板材放入粘合剂层中。必须将板头部分向下滚压(消除卷曲X粘合剂的涂抹区域只能是在粘合剂的开放时间内能够进行处理并向下滚压的区域。在放入粘合剂层之后,地板底面必须充分湿润。及时更换齿形条。在整个安装期间,应定期检查湿润处理是否正确。
在切割第二板材边缘时,沿着下层已切割的板材对上层板材划线,然后使用钩型刀片切割上层板材。刀片不得将粘合剂挤开。使用专用接缝和板条切割刀,可一次完成所述切割。为避免接缝受到压力(接缝凸起),可将板材边缘切割成0.5 mm的揍缝。以微带一定角度的方式,从上往下切割接缝(底切),使得接缝底部稍宽。应用接缝辊再次向下滚压接缝区域,或者在切割后使用压锤向下轻敲。
一定要注意粘合剂是否过期。若超过开放时间,则地面覆盖物粘结面的润湿度可能不够。确保不存在气穴。为使地板底面全部湿润,必须在整个表面上向下摩擦按压,然后再滚压。在对地板进行向下摩擦按压或滚压时,开始时先沿着宽度方向,然后再沿着长度方向,从而以最直接的方式消除气穴。然后,必须用锤子的柄部来检查该区域是否存在中空区(气穴),
若存在,则将其去除。必要时,在接下来的5 - 20分钟内,再次摩擦接缝、板头和流挂,或者将其压低。在进行向下摩擦按压时,建议使用覆盖有软木或毛毡的木质平滑辊:在进行向下滚压地板时,使用重量不小于65 kg且宽度约为40 cm的多面滚轮。
若随后需要进行接缝密封,则也应采用与此相同的处理方法。
流挂
流挂是指持续受包裹力影响的板材区域,因此能够导致出现中空区。在养护过程中会导致流挂,材料在干燥箱中产生大型环状悬挂。流挂最常出现在每个完整地板卷材的中部,地板厚度或温度不同,流挂的明显程度也不同(始终遵循制造商关于这些区域的粘接说明)。
4.4.2  片状亚麻地板安装
片状具有黄麻或聚酯,玻璃纤维底面。在选择粘合剂及用量时,请考虑这一点(使用合适的齿形刮刀进行涂抹)。
一般情况下,安装时,在交错方向上具有十字接缝(棋盘形X在安装这种地板砖时,先根据基准线和第一排地板砖的安装起点,以平行于安装室正面的方式,铺设地板砖,这样,在边缘区域中,边缘地板砖的尺寸便不会小于1 0 cm。只能用粉笔画出基准线。为防止偏差出现,建议分步安装,尤其是在棋盘形安装中,更应如此。
4.4.3  型材粘接
建议使用经地板制造商认可的干型粘合剂或接触型分散粘合剂来粘接型材。若技术允许,则尽量减少对溶剂含量高的接触型粘合剂的使用(见第3.1,3节)。在使用干型粘合剂或接触型分散粘合剂时,需粘接的元件必须能够精确配合,否则后期便几乎不能加以纠正。在安装结束后,必须立即按压元件,在整个长度上向下轻轻敲严实。
4.5接缝密封
4.5.1  接缝热焊接
建议对商业区(尤其是卫生区)的亚麻地板接缝进行焊接。对于容易受湿气影响的基层(例如含木粒的面板、结合有石膏的基层)而言,以及对于清洗频繁的房间而言,一般情况下,应始终执行接缝焊接。
只有在粘合剂完全固化后才能执行热焊接,原则上,最早的热焊接时间是24小时后,但最好是2-3天后再进行热焊接(参见制造商的说明X使用特殊铣削工具或开槽工具来打开接缝,打开接缝的宽度应约为3.5 mm,深度不超过地板厚度的2/3。必须仔细清洁(吸尘)接缝。可使用自动热熔机(焊接线必须在不受力的状态下穿过机器)或者带快焊喷嘴的手动焊机来加工焊丝(焊丝延伸长度为5 mm)。为避免损坏地板表面,应选择出气口较窄的焊接喷嘴。一定要避免超过盛低于规定加工温度的情况。工作速度应使得融化的焊丝能够在稍微施加压力的情况下轻松地进入磨槽(2.5 - 3.0米/分钟),并进而填满磨槽。采用如下两个步骤来去除多余材料:
·在接缝尚未冷却时,用带修整导向件的锋利的月牙铲刀来执行第一步去除。
·只有在接缝完全冷却之后,才能进行第二步去除
——去掉多余材料,使接缝与地板表面相平,期间依然使用月牙铲刀。
  注:
若不使用月牙铲刀,则我们建议使用Mozart工具刀,这种刀的设计使其能够仅去除接缝部分的多余材料,从而最大程度地降低(甚至避免)了对地面的损害。
4.5.2 使用双组份接缝密封剂进行接缝密封
使用单或双组分接缝密封剂(例如基于聚氨酯的密封件),可满足特殊的接缝密封要求(例如,在实验室中或者在保健区内)。一定要遵循地板制造商的相关建议。
4.6 特殊地面覆盖物结构
若将亚麻地面覆盖物安装到软木结构上,若复合地板带有软木或泡沫材料底面,若安装在合适的防冲击隔音层上,若亚麻地面覆盖物具有导电性,则应始终遵循地板及粘合剂制造商的相关说明。
4.7  清洁和维护
安装人员应至少在完成如VOB DIN 18365的C部分所述的安装之前,向客户提交地面覆盖物书面注意说明书和订单确认书。
应使用系统清洁及维护产品,这些产品不得对地面覆盖物的性能产生不利影响。
5. 相关标准及技术简介
请在下文中找到相应的标准和技术简介。适用当前版本。
5.1  工业安全
Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoftV),发布于2004年12月23日(BGBI.IS 3758),根据2008年12月1 8日法令第2条修正(BGBI.IS 2768)
5.2亚麻地板标准
若有需要,应检查标准的有效性(例如www.beuth.de)
DIN EN 685
弹性、纺织及复合地面覆盖物——分类
2007年11月
DIN EN 548
弹性地面覆盖物——朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地扳的规范
2004年11月
DIN EN 687
弹性地面覆盖物——软木上的朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
1997年9月
DIN EN 686
弹性地面覆盖物——泡沫材料底面上的朴素亚麻与装饰性亚麻地板的规范
1997年9月
DIN EN 688
弹性地面覆盖物——软木亚麻地板规范
1997年9月
5.3  亚麻地板粘合剂标准
DIN EN 14259
地面覆盖物用粘合剂——机械电气性能要求
2004年7月
5.4 地板安装工程标准
5.5  其它标准及技术简介
TKB技术简介6
地面覆盖物、木板覆盖物及地板砖所适用的刮刀欲口尺寸
2007年5月
TKB技术简介8
用于安装地面覆盖物和镶木地板的基层评估和制备
2004年6月
TKB技术简介9
自流平技术规范及安装
2008年4月
奉技术简介中的内容基于出版人员的所有相关知识。其仅供信息参考之用,是非约束性指导文件,不具备任何形式的代表或保证作用。若有疑问,应执行测试安装。本件为翻译件,仅供参考,以英语原件的描述为准。
校对者注释:
条目3.1 粘合剂类型
“一定要严格遵循用量或刮刀缺口尺寸方面的说明”。亚麻地板背衬为黄麻网,粘合剂必须具有良好填充性。选用刮齿为TKB规范之B1、B2,每平方米用胶量为500克左右。粘合剂用量不足将导致填充型不足,造成粘结面不密实,地板鼓包。下图为亚麻地板背衬,粘合剂必须具有良好的填充性,确保黄麻网和地板本体都能与粘合剂紧密接触。
亚麻地板背底
条目3.1.1分散粘合剂
本条目所指分散粘合剂特指德国系丙烯酸乳液体系的产品。这个产品体系以丙烯酸树脂为主,添加增粘树脂,将大量填料和树脂均匀分散于水中。美国系亚麻粘合剂为丁苯乳液体系,初粘和终粘更好,上海世博会中国馆即采用美系亚麻粘合剂。
条目3.1.2 接触型剂类型
本条目所指接触型剂简单理解为“万能胶”,高溶剂含量,施工中释放高挥发的溶剂蒸汽,有毒、易燃,大面积使用具有爆炸危险。一般在楼梯、地板上墙的时候使用。
目前德国最先进的水性万能胶不合有机溶剂,低挥发,性能完全可以取代溶剂型万能胶,如德国优成的WK222。
条目3.1.3 其他粘合剂
双组份聚氨酯或环氧粘合剂适用于大厚度、高人流量的环境。
双组份分散液/水泥或石膏粉磨类粘合剂已经淘汰。
干型粘合剂为双面胶,适用于需要快速安装并立即投入使用的场所。国内的双面胶未经测试,不可用于地板安装。
条目4.2 储存及调温
本条目所述粘贴之前的预处理方法,与国内现有做法不同。国内—般做法为裁切后预铺设,将地板放置在安装环境中至少24小时。本条目认为裁切后将地板卷起(不卷紧)放置于安装环境至少24小时。
国内现有做法与本条目所述目的是一样的,让地板恢复尺寸并适应安装环境的温湿度。笔者认为TKB 4讲述的方法更为科学。亚麻地板纵向收缩、横向膨胀的加剧,与水性乳液型粘合剂有关,未使用粘合剂之前,这种收缩膨胀未必加剧。卷起竖立放置可能更有利于她板的适应温度。
现场卷起树立放置比平面摊开放置有个缺点:地板卷芯处卷曲弹性较大,粘合剂的初粘力未必能粘住端头。按照德国的做法,必要时,端头卷曲处使用沙袋压制,所以不存在问题。
而国内呢?真没见过谁在现场准备沙袋压制地板端头卷曲。
条目4.3 安装
安装亚麻地板,必须严守安装条件限制。”安装条件”指安装前的环境预备,安装施工中,安装后7天养护。国内对环境温度的理解往往简单的归结为施工中的环境温度。施工时打开空调升温,地表温度与空气温度同步,需要三天时间。所以临施工时升温是无效的。
避免阳光直射刚铺设的亚麻地板,尤其是刚铺设24小时之内,这段时间粘合剂尚未固化,没有产生强度。阳光直射能使亚麻地板迅速升温,急剧的温度变化造成急剧的尺寸变化,出现鼓包、收缩膨胀等问题在所难免。
4.4.1.4 粘结
“必须将地板端头部分向下滚压(消除卷曲】。”限于分散粘合剂的有限初粘力,必要时,采用沙袋静压,确保粘接可靠、牢固。
“一定要注意粘合剂是否过期。若超过开放时间,则地板覆盖物粘结面的润湿度可能不够。”
这里所指“是否过期”理解为是否超过可施工时间。可施工时间理解为粘合剂可以充份转移到亚麻地板背衬的时间。超过可施工时间,粘合剂不能充份转移,即为“粘合剂过期”。“润湿”—词为粘合剂能够湿润地板背衬,有效湿润才能确保粘合剂转移。丙烯酸分散乳液型亚麻地板粘合剂无需晾胶时间,涂胶后立即粘贴地板。
国内所售亚麻地板粘合剂皆为德国系技术产物,为丙烯酸亚麻地板粘合剂。此类粘合剂严禁晾胶,施工时间—般不超过10分钟,一次涂胶,必须在10分钟内粘贴完毕绝,不可一次大面积涂胶后慢慢粘贴地板。
条目4.4.1.3和4.4.1.4
切割和切边,见示意图:
错误的切割粘贴方法
亚麻地板安装错误的切割粘贴方法
正确的切割粘贴方法
亚麻地板安装正确的切割粘贴方法
条目4.5.1 接缝热焊接
这个问题在国内成为不可解决的大问题。亚麻地板的焊缝强度应超过地板本体。国内追求低成本,所有国产焊条都达不到要求,建议采用亚麻地板制造商原配的进口焊条。
无论采用何种焊条焊接时间至少在地板安装后24小时以后,最好在2-3天以后。粘合剂未固化前,焊接时的高温破环接缝处的粘结强度。未固化的粘合剂含有大量待挥发水份,这些水份被焊接封闭于地板之下,必然造成鼓包。
 
Installation of Linoleum Flooring
Tables of contents
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Linoleum Floor
2.1 DIN EN 548 Resilient Floor Coverings-Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum
2.2 DIN EN 686 Resilient Floor Coverings -Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum on a Foam Backing
2.3 DIN EN 687 Resilient Floor Coverings -Specification for plain and decorative on a Corkment Backing
2.4 DIN EN 688 Resilient Floor Coverings -Specification for Cork Linoleum
3. Adhesives for Linoleum Flooring
3.1 Adhesive Types
3.1 .1Dispersion Adhesives
3.1.2Other Adhesives
4. Installation of Linoleum Flooring
4.1 Substrate
4.2 Storage and Conditioning
4.3 Installation Conditions
4.4 Installation
4.4.1 Installation of Linoleum Flooring in sheets
4.4.4.1 Cutting of Linoleum Sheets
4.4.1.2 Cutting of Heads
4.4.1.3 Cutting of Edges
4.4.1.4 Bonding
4.4.2 Bonding of Linoleum Flooring in Tiles
4.4.3 Bonding of Profiles
4.5 Seam Sealing
4.5.1 Thermal joint Sealing
4.5.2 Joint Sealing with l- or 2-Component joint sealers
4.6 Special Floor Covering Constructions
4.7 Cleaning and Maintenance
5. Relevant Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
5.1 Industrial Safety
5.2 Standards for Linoleum Flooring
5.3 Standards for Adhesives for Linoleum Flooring
5.4 Standards for Floor Covering Work
5.5 Other Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
5.6 Literature and Commentaries
1. Introduction
This technical briefing note advises the installer on selection of installation materials for linoleum flooring. It contains information on the different types's of linoleum flooring, classified according to the relevant European standards. When installing linoleum flooring, the specific characteristics of the floor covering must be taken into consideration. Linoleum flooring comes in form of sheets or tiles and is fully bonded during installation.
This briefing note does not deal with bonding of linoleum flooring on special constructions, such as sport floor constructions, industrial floors, bonding of linoleum with corkment or foam backing or conductive installation.
Linoleum flooring is mostly made from renewable raw materials such as oxidized linseed oil, resin, cork and/or wood flour which are fused to a carrier after appropriate mixing in a alendaring process. The sheets produced in this manner then mature in heated drying chambers until equirements specified in the respective standards are met. Linoleum flooring has a number of characteristic properties which must be taken into consideration during installation.
During installation/bonding, linoleum flooring might react to moisture from air, substrate or adhesive resulting in dimensional changes of the flooring material.
General note:
Residual indentations visible under a spotlight, caused by high punctual loads, can never be
completely avoided with resilient floor coverings. However, they can be minimized by selecting the right adhesive, application quantity (use of TKB recommended notched trowel with suitable notch sizes), proper processing and choice of appropriate chair/furniture sliders (large and level
contact surface, no sharp edges) and/or use suitable pressure distribution underlays under
movable furniture or rollers (type W according to EN 12529). This also includes that future use must comply with floor construction.
2. Classification of Linoleum Flooring
2.1 DIN EN 548 Resilient Floor Coverings - Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum
2.2 DIN EN 686 Resilient Floor Coverings- Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum on a Foam Backing
2.3 DIN EN 687 Resilient Floor Coverings - Specification for plain and decorative Linoleum on a Corkment Backing
2.4 DIN EN 688 Resilient floor coverings -specification for cork linoleum
3.Adhesives for Linoleum Floor Coverings
The different types of adhesives are classified relative to composition, type of processing, setting behaviour and requirements for substrate.
3.1 Types of Adhesives
It is recommended to preferably use very low emission adhesives with EMICODE ECl/ECl R
classification. Only use adhesives specifically approved by flooring manufacturer for bonding of
linoleum floor covering. Always carefully obsesrve instructions regarding required application quantity or trowel notch size.
Linoleum floor coverings are preferably bonded using solvent-free, very low emission EMICODE ECl  dispersion adhesives with one-sided application. Alternatively, contact or dry adhesives (e.g. for pedestal formation), 2 component dispersion-cement adhesives or reaction resin adhesives (e.g. on non-absorbent substrates or with high traffic loads) are used.
3.1.1 Dispersion Adhesives
Dispersion adhesives consist of organic binding materials dispersed in water, inorganic fillers and additives. Setting takes place based on a physical process when the water contained in the adhesive evaporates. The setting properties of dispersion adhesives are mainly influenced by the climatic conditions of the installation environment. High temperatures and/or low humidity accelerate, low temperatures and/or high humidity delay the setting process.
For bonding of linoleum floor coverings, only dispersion adhesives are used with wet bed
application. This requires an absorbent substrate. The adhesives are applied to the prepared
substrate using the specified TKB-notched trowel. Dispersion adhesives have a limited open time
during which the linoleum floor covering shall be placed in the adhesive bed. If open time is
exceeded, wetting is insufficient and consequently the bond lacks strlength (e.g. hollow areas).
3.1.2 Contact Adhesives
Solvent-based contact adhesives consist of dissolved organic binding materials, highly volatile
solvents (up t0 80 %), inorganic fillers and additives. Dispersion contact adhesives mainly consist of dispersions of natural and synthetic rubbers with inorganic fillers and additives.
Contact adhesives are only processed with the contact bonding process. They are applied to both sides, i.e. the prepared substrate and floor covering backing and shall be sufficiently aired
before floor covering is installed. They are mostly used for small area installations such as for bonding of baseboards and flooring on stairs.
Note:
The German Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV) (Ordinance on Hazardous Substances) and
Technische Regel Gefahrstoffe (TRGS) (Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances) 610 severely
restrict use of adhesives with high solvent content for occupational health and safety reasons. For all situations of linoleum flooring bonding, solvent-free adhesives are available.
3.1.3 0ther adhesives
Reaction resin adhesives consist of chemically reactive organic binding materials, inorganic fillers and additives. Reaction resin adhesives are mainly 2-component systems based on olyurethane or epoxy resins and set by chemical reaction. Consequently, they have a limited pot life or processing time. The curing speed of these adhesives is essentially influenced by the
temperature of adhesive, substrate, floor covering and environment. 2-component reaction resin
adhesives  require  exact  compliance  with prescribed mixing ratio and careful mixing.
2-component dispersion/cement powder adhesives consist of a liquid component based on organic binders dispersed in water, a cement and/or gypsum based powder component as well as fillers and additives. In addition to physical drying, a major part of the water contained in the adhesive is bound chemically by reaction with the powder component. On account of this chemical water-binding, less water is given off to the environment (here floor covering and substrate) and the curing process is sped up. Consequently, these adhesives can also be used on non-absorbent or poorly absorbent substrates.  The chemical reaction starts immediately after mixing. These products have a limited pot life and open time.
Dry adhesives are strips which are self-adhesive on both sides and come in rolls of varying width. Dry adhesives are delivered pre-dried by the manufacturer and therefore do not require airing, setting or drying time. After proper installation, they are immediately load-bearing. Use for baseboards and stairs must be coordinated with the manufacturers of dry adhesive and linoleum floor covering.
4. Installation of Linoleum Floor Coverings
4.1 Substrate
TKB Technical briefing note 8 "Assessment and Preparation of Substrates for Installation of Floor Coverings and Parquet" as well as BEB Technical briefing'snote "Beurteilen und Vorbereiten von Untergrunden. Verlegen von elastischen und textilen Bodenbelagen, hichtstoffelementen
(Laminat), Parkett und Holzpflaster. Beheizte und unbeheizte FufAbodenkonstruktionen. (Assessment and preparation of substrates. Installation of elastic and textile floor coverings, laminate, parquet and wood paving. Heated and non-heated floor constructionsy' contain detailed instructions and specifications regarding required tests.
Linoleum floor coverings shall be bonded in a professional manner over the entire surface on a
substrate conforming to standards, i.e. assessed and properly prepared (see ATV DIN 18365
"Bodenbelagsarbeiten (Floor covering work)", section 3.1.1,3.3 and 3.4.3).
When installing baseboards, walls must also be sufficiently dry and even.
4.2. Storage and Conditioning
Linoleum flooring shall be stored in a dry place, rolls in standing position. After rolls are unpacked following the roll numbers, the sheets are pre-cut with apsprox. 1 cm/meter or max. 10 cm extra length than needed for installation. Then, before bonding, the sheets - wear side on the outside, loosely rolled up and standing - shall be stored for at least 24 hours in the installation room to adjust to room climate. The room shall have a temperature of min.18 0C. Humidity shall preferably be between 40 - 65 %.
Linoleum flooring in tiles shall only be conditioned on a level surface according to manufacturer’s instructions.
4.3 Installation Conditions
The following threshold values for temperature and relative humidity shall be adhered to :
. relative humidity between 40 - 65 %
. room temperature min. 18 ℃
. temperature of materials used, e.g. flooring, adhesive min. 18 ℃
. substrate temperature min. 15 0C, for heated construction max. 22 ℃
On the basis of required curing, drying and reaction times of the installation materials, the
above room climate conditions shall be maintained for 3 days before installation, during and for 7 days after completion of installation work. Until adhesive has completely cured, the installed area shall be protected from direct sunlight or other thermal effects. Customer shall ensure that these essential measures have been taken, if necessar3r after installer has requested the measures or has voiced reservations.
Laid out sheets shall be bonded over the entire surface immediately. Dense, non-absorbent substrates, e.g. flow asphalts or sealed screeds must be levelled with sufficient layer thickness
(recommendation: 2 - 3 mm dry layer thickness) before dispersion adhesives are applied.
4.4 Installation
4.4.1 Installation of Linoleum Floor Covering in Sheets
As a rule, linoleum floor coverings shall never be bent since they may break. When folding back sheets, e.g. before bonding, always maintain a sufficiently large radius in the fold back area.
4.4,1.1 Cutting of Linoleum Sheets
When cutting the sheets, always take into consideration that material-specific dimensional
changes of the flooring can occur especially in the seam and hygienic skisrting board area.
During bonding, linoleum floor coverings contract lengthwise and expand in width, especially when dispersion-based adhesives are used.
4.4.1.2 Cutting of Heads
For heads, length variations on vertical building sections must be prevented for tight cuts. In these cases, with sheet lengths of more than 6 meters, the sheet is bonded up to a remaining length of 1.5 meters. Once the adhesive has achieved sufficient initial strength and the sheet is locked in place, the remaining length is bonded and fitted into the adhesive bed.
For short lengths and heads of long sheets, when no direct joint will follow, the linoleum heets are folded back over one half of the room. Then, the dispersion adhesive is applied; the sheet is placed in the adhesive bed and rubbed down. Only then is a clean cut performed at the heads. The sheets are then installed in the second half of the room as specified.
End seams are only fitted and cut after sheet has been placed in adhesive bed.
4.4.1.3 Edge Cutting
Both edges of the sheet shall be cut. The first edge (always the same side of the sheets) shall be cut by a minimum of l.5 - 2 cm, even if later the joint is sealed using a welding cord. After cutting, the sheet edge must rest completely and evenly on substrate. If this is not the case, edge must be re-cut. The first edge cut is performed before adhesive is applied e.g. using the appropriate linoleum edge cutter. Cutting of the second sheet edge (seamscut) is performed after sheet has been placed in adhesive bed (see 4.4.1.4).
Edge cut
Figure 1: Edge cut
4.4.1.4 Bonding
Sheet halves which must be closely fitted to adjoining building sections, e.g. thresholds and
door cases, shall be bonded as described in first section of chapter 4.4.1.2. For long and narrow
hallways which require lengthwise bonding, the sheets may also be folded back crosswise. After
applying the adhesive (generally using TKB notched trowel size Bl), the sheets are immediately placed in the adhesive bed free of tension. Heads must be rolled down (decurled). Only apply adhesive to an area which can be processed and rolled down during open time of adhesive. Backing of the flooring must be fully wetted after placing in adhesive bed. Replace toothed strip in time. Regularly check proper wetting during entire installation.
When cutting the second sheet edge, the upper sheet is scribed along the lower and already cut sheets and is then cut using a hooked blade. The blade must be designed in a way as not to push aside the adhesive. Using special seam or strip cutters, this process can be performed in one step. In order to prevent seam compression (peaked seams), the sheet edges shall be cut t0 0.5 mm joints. The seam cut is done slightly angled from top to bottom (undercut) so that the seam is slightly wider at the bottom. The seam area shall be rolled down again with a seam roller or pressing hammer after cutting.
Always observe open time of the adhesive. If open time is exceeded, the backing of the floor covering might not be sufficiently wet:ed. Make sure there are no air pockets. In order to achieve complete wetting of the flooring backing, it must be rubbed page 5 0f7 and then rolled down over the entire area. When rolling/rubbing the flooring down, start along the width, then work lengthwise in order to remove air pockets on the most direct way. Then, the area must be examined with the handle of a hammer to detect possible hollow areas (air pockets) and to
remove them. If needed, re-rub seams, heads and sags 5 - 20 minutes later or weigh them down. For rubbing down, it is recommended to use a smoother made from cork or carpet-covered wood, for rolling the flooring down use a multi-sectional roller with a weight of at least 65 kg and a width of approx, 40 cm.
The exact same steps also apply when joint sealing will follow.
Sags
A sag is an area of the sheet which is under constant wrap tension and therefore causes hollow
areas. Sags are caused when during the maturing process the material is suspended in big loops in the drying chamber. Most often, they are found in the middle of each full flooring roll and can be more or less distinctive depending on thickness of the flooring or temperature (always observe manufactures instructions regarding bonding of these areas).
4.4.2 Installation of Linoleum Flooring in Tiles
Linoleum flooring in tiles is manufactured with jute or polyester/glass fleece backing. Please take this into consideration when selecting the adhesive and application quantity (appropriate notched trowel). Normally, installation is performed with cross joints in alternating directions (chessboard). When installing tiles, first lay down a parallel to the main front of the room using a reference line and the starting point for install~tion of the first row of tiles so that in the edge area the size of the edge tiles does not fall under 10 cm. Only use white chalk for the reference line. In order to prevent any offset, a stepped installation it is recommended, preferably in a chessboard pattern.
4.4.3 Bonding of Profiles
Dry adhesives or dispersion contact adhesives approved  by  flooring  manufacturer  are
recommended for bonding of profiles. Restrict the use of contact adhesives with a high level of
solvents to the absolute minimum technically necessary (see item 3.1.3).
When using dry adhesives or dispersion contact adhesives, the elements to be bonded must be
fitted exactly since subsequent corrections are almost impossible to perform. After installation, the elements must be immediately pressed and tapped down firmly over the entire length.
4.5 Seam Sealing
4.5.1 Thermal Seam Sealing
It is recommended to seal the joints of linoleum flooring in the commercial sector, in particular in hygiene areas. For substrates sensitive to moisture (e.g. wood particle-based panels, calcium sulfate-bound substrates) as well as in rooms where frequent wet cleaning must be performed, as a rule seam sealing shall afways be performed.
Thermal sealing shall only be performed after adhesive has fus;ly cured, as a rule after 24 hours at the earliest, but better yet after 2 - 3 days (see manufacturer's instructions). The joints are opened using a special miller or groover over a width of approx. 3.5 mm and upst0 2/3 0f the flooring thickness. The joint shall be carefully cleaned (vacuumed). The welding cord can either be processed using an automatic fuse machine (cord must pass the machine tension-free) or a hand welder with attached quick-weld nozzle (with a welding cord passage of 5 mm). In order to avoid damages’ the surface of the flooring, select a welding nozzle with a narrow air outlet. Bsolutely avoid exceeding or falling short of specified processing temperature. Work at a pace that allows melted cord to easily run into mill groove (2.5 - 3.0 meters/min) by applying only light
pressure and to completely fill the groove. Excess material is removed in two steps:
The first removal step is performed when joint has not yet cooled down using a sharp quarter    moon knife with trim guide attached.
The second step takes place only after joints have completely cooled down - excess is removed flush to flooring surface, also using a quarter moon knife.
Note:
As an alternative to the quarter moon knife, we recommend the Mozart utility blade (Mozart AG, Solingen, www.mozart-blades.de). This blade is designed so it only takes off excess in the joint area, thus minimizing or even avoiding damage to the flooring surface.
4.5.2 Seam Sealing using 2-Component joint Sealers
Special requirements for seam sealing, e.g. in laboratory areas or in the healthcare sector, are
met by using l  or 2-component joint sealers (e.g. on polyurethane basis). Always observe the
relevant recommendations issued by flooring manufacturer.
4.6 Special Floor Covering Constructions
When installing linoleum floor coverings on corkment, for composite flooring with corkment or
foam backing, on suitable impact sound insulation layers and for conductive linoleum floor overings, always observe instructions issued by flooring and adhesive manufacturers.
4.7 Cleaning and Maintenance
The installer shall hand over to customer written care instructions for the floor covering together with order confirmation, at the latest before completion of installation according to VOB DIN 18365, Part C.
System cleaning and maintenance products shall be used and shall not adversely affect the floor covering properties.
5. Relevant Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
In the following, please find the relevant applicable standards and technical briefing notes. The current versions apply.
5.1 Industrial Safety
Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoftV), Published December 23, 2004 (BGBI. I S 3758), amended by article 2 0f the ordinance of December 18, 2008 (BGBI. I S 2768)
5.2 Standards for Linoleum Flooring
Validity of the standards needs to be checked if required (e.g. www.beuth.de)
DIN EN 685
Resilient, textile and laminate floor coverings –Classification November 2007
DIN EN 548
Resilient floor coverings - specification for plain and decorative linoleum November 2004
DIN EN 687
Resilient floor coverings - specification for plain and decorative linoleum on a corkment backing September 1997
DIN EN 686
Resilient floor coverings - specification for plain and decorative linoleum on a foam backing
September 1997
DIN EN 688
Resilient floor coverings - specification for cork linoleum September 1997
5.3 Standards for Linoleum Flooring Adhesives
DIN EN 14259
Adhesives for floor coverings - requirements for mechanical and electrical performance July 2004
5.4 Standards for Floor Installation Work
5.5 TKB Technical Briefing Notes
TKB-Technical Briefing Note 6
Trowel notch sizes for floor coverings, wood flooring and tiles May 2007
TKB-Technical Briefing Note 8
Assessment and preparation of substrates for installation of floor coverings and parquet June 2004
TKB- Technical Briefing Note 9
Technical specification and installation of floor leveling compounds April 2008
5.6 Literature and Commentaries
The details and information in this technical briefing note are based on the best knowledge of the publishers. They are provided for informational purposes only and as a non-binding guideline without representation or warranty of any kind. When in doubt, test installations shall be performed.

上一篇: 上一篇:亚麻地板铺设

下一篇: 下一篇:亚麻地板安装五个关键