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合成橡胶地板安装
目录
1.简介
2.合成橡胶地板分类
2.1  符合DIN EN 1817要求的表面光滑的合成橡胶地板
2.2  符合DIN EN 1816要求的表面光滑且底面采用泡沫材料的合成橡胶地板
2.3  符合DIN EN 12199要求的凸纹橡胶地板
2.4  符合DIN EN 14521要求的表面光滑且带装饰层的合成橡胶地板
3.合成橡胶地面覆盖物用粘合剂
3.1  粘合剂类型
3.1.1分散粘合剂
3.1.2反应性树脂粘合剂
3.1.3溶剂基接触型粘合剂
3.1.4干型粘合剂
3.2  粘合剂类型选择
3.2.1选择标准
3.2.2具有或不具有泡沫材料底面的、表面光滑的同质和复合层橡胶地板(符合DIN EN 1816、DIN EN 1817和DIN EN 14521要求的地板)
3.2.3同质和异质凸纹橡胶地板(符合DIN EN 1 21 99要求)
3.2.4型材及楼梯踏板
4.合成橡胶地面覆盖物安装
4.1  基材
4.2  储存及调温
4.3  安装条件
4.4  粘接
4.4.1薄板状合成橡胶地面覆盖物的粘接
4,4.2片状合成橡胶地面覆盖物的粘接
4.4.3垄材及楼梯踏板的粘接
4.5  接缝密封
4.5.1热密封
4.5.2利用单或双组分接缝密封剂来进行密封
5.相关标准及技术简介
5.1  工业安全
5.2  合成橡胶地板标准
5.3  合成橡胶地板粘合剂标准
5.4地板安装工程标准
5.5  TKB技术简介
5.6  其它标准及技术简介
5.7  参考文献及注释
 
 
1.简介
本技术简介就合成橡胶地板的安装材料选择向安装人员给予了建议。内容涉及根据相关欧洲标准分类的各种合成橡胶地板。安装合成橡胶地板时,必须考虑具体特征。根据成分、处理类型及固化特性对粘合剂类型予以划分。
—般备注:
弹性地面覆盖物上难免出现因重负荷物引起的、在聚光灯下可见的残留压痕。但是,通过选用正确的粘合剂、适量涂覆(使用TKB推荐的缺口尺寸适当的齿形刮刀)、正确处理、选择适当的座椅/家具滑块(大而平整的接触面、无尖锐边缘)及/或在可移动的家具下设置适用的压力分配衬底或者使用滚轮(如EN 12529所述W型),可以最大程度地减少所述压痕。这其中还包括家具使用必须与地板构造相符。
2. 合成橡胶地板分类
—般情况下,合成橡胶地板又被称作橡胶地板。这类地板可为薄板状或片状,采用全粘法安装。
2.1 符合DIN EN 1817要求的表面光滑的合成橡胶地板
表面光滑的薄板状或片状同质或复合层橡胶地板,其中包括带木纹或浮饰面以及打磨光滑的底面。对于同质地面覆盖物而言,耐磨层厚度与总厚度相当。对于异质地面覆盖物而言,耐磨层厚度应至少为1.0 mm。两种地面覆盖物的总厚度皮至少为1.8mm。
2.2  符合DIN EN 1816要求的表面光滑且底面采用泡沫材料的合成橡胶地板
表面光滑的薄板状或片状同质或复合层橡胶地板,其中包括带木纹或浮饰面以及采用泡沫材料的底面。耐磨层厚度应至少为1.0 mm,总厚度应至少为3.5 mm。
2.3  符合DIN EN 12199要求的凸纹橡胶地板
薄板状或片状同质或异质凸纹合成橡胶地板,例如经拉毛的橡胶地板。对于同质地面覆盖物而言,耐磨层厚度与总厚度相当。对于异质地面覆盖物而言,耐磨层厚度应至少为1.0 mm。
2.4  符合DIN EN 14521要求的表面光滑且带装饰层的合成橡胶地板
表面光滑且带装饰层的薄板状和片状合成橡胶地面覆盖物,其具有或不具有采用泡沫材料的底面。无泡沫材料底面的地面覆盖物的总厚度应至少为1.8 mm,带泡沫材料底面的地面覆盖物的总厚度应至到>为2.5 mm。
3 合成橡胶地面覆盖物用粘合剂
3.1  粘合剂类型
3.1.1  分散粘合剂
分散粘合剂是将有机粘合材料分散在水、无机填料及添加剂中而得到。固化基于物理过程(即粘合剂中所含的水蒸发)而发生。分散粘合剂的性能主要受安装环境条件的影响。高温及/或低湿度会加速固化,低温及,或高湿度会推迟固他。
若合成橡胶地板粘合时只需在一面涂抹分散粘合剂,则需要使用吸水性基材。在基材上涂抹时,应使用专用齿形馒刀。
利用接触粘合法,来处理接触型分散粘合剂。在两面(即预制基材面以及地面覆盖物底面)均涂抹这种粘合剂,且在安装地面覆盖物之前,必须风干至足够程度。这些粘合剂主要用于小面积安装,例如楼梯上的底板和地板的安装。
3.1.2  反应性树脂粘合剂
反应性树脂粘合剂由具有化学反应性的有机粘合材料、无机填料及添加剂构成。合成橡胶地板用反应性树脂粘合剂主要为基于聚氨酯或环氧树脂的双组分系统,通过化学反应实现固化。这些粘合剂的固化速度主要受粘合剂、基材和地面覆盖物的温度的影响。双组分反应性树脂粘合剂需要完全遵循混合比要求,并应小心混合。其罐内存放期和开罐后的存放期均较短。
3.1.3  溶剂基接触型粘合剂
溶剂基接触型粘合剂由已溶解的有机粘合材料、高挥发性溶剂(高达80%X无机填料及添加剂构成。鉴于工作安全性、从用户及环保角度方面考虑,若技术允许,则尽量减少这些粘合剂的使用。因此,这些粘合剂仅用于楼梯上的底板和地板的粘接。在这些应用中,还可代之以接触型分散粘合剂和干型粘合剂。
注:
出于职业健康与安全方面的考虑,德国Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoftV)(有害物质法
令)以及德国Technische Regeln Gefahrstoffe(TRGS)(有害物质技术条例)61 0中广泛限制对溶剂含量高的粘合剂的使用。所使用的溶剂是高挥发性的可燃有害制剂。若不钱遵循既定阈值,则必须采取GefStoffV中所述的方法。
根据关于修改RL 76/769/EC(限制指令)的1348/2008/EC号决议,环己烷含量超过0.1%的氯丁橡胶基接触型粘合剂在销售给私人消费者时,只能采用尺寸不超过350 gr的包装。
3.1.4干型粘合剂
干型粘合剂呈薄板状或带状,其两面均有粘性,宽度不定。干型粘合剂经制造商预先干燥,因此无需因风干、固化及干燥而耗费时间。在正确安装后,即可承重。
3.2  粘合剂类型选择
3.2.1  选择标准
合成橡胶地板安装用粘合剂的选择适用如下标准:
·地面覆盖物特征,例如厚度、尺寸或底面
·对地板的要求
  一由极端温度波动或表面受阳光直射(玻璃结构,例如温室中火玻璃拱顶下)而产生的热    应力
  一因叉车或升降运送车产生的机械应力
  一表面湿气(例如因清洁产生的湿气)
·基材类型
  一吸水性基材
  一非吸水性渔材
3.2.2  具有或不具有泡沫材料底面的、表面光滑的同质和复合层橡胶地板(符合DIN EN 181 6、DIN EN 1817和DIN EN 14521要求的地板)
对于这些地面覆盖物,建议使用分散粘合剂。
3.2.3  同质和异质凸纹橡胶地板(符合DIN EN 1 21 99要求)
对于这些地面覆盖韧,建议根据地面覆盖物厚度和既定用途,使用分散粘合剂或反应性树脂粘合剂。若地面覆盖物厚度不超过4.0 mm,则建议使用分散粘合剂。
若地面覆盖物厚度超过4.0 mm,且对粘接及非吸水性基材的要求较高,则应使用双组分反应性树脂粘合剂。
3.2.4  型材及楼梯踏板
对于这些模制品而言,建议使用干型或接触型分散粘合剂。若技术允许,则尽量减少对溶剂含量高的粘合剂的使用。
4.合成橡胶地面覆盖物安装
4.1  基材
TKB技术简介8“用于安装地面覆盖物和镶木地板的基材评估和制备”以及BEB技术简介(“基材评估和制备、弹性及纺织地面覆盖物、层压元件(层板)、镶木地板及木块。受热及非受热型地板结构”)中包含所需测试的相关说明详情及规范。
4.2  储存及调温
应将合成橡胶地板存放在干燥的地方,若为片状,则成对放置,上表面或下表面两两相对,若为薄板状,则成卷竖立存放。在安装前,应在室温至少为18 ℃、相对湿度不超过75%的环境中,将地面疆盖物调温至少24小时。若地板为片状,则最好将该覆盖物铺放在安装室内或室内的大面积区域,包括切割镶边砖片。
4.3  安装条件
相对湿度最好为40 - 65%,但不得超过75%。环境温度以及安装材料(例如地面覆盖物和粘合剂)的温度不得低于18 ℃。若与DIN 18365存在偏差,则基材温度不得低于18 0C,以便将安装及后期使用时的温差控制在最小。
在粘合剂固化过程中,温度升高(例如受阳光直射)时,可能导致地面覆盖物的尺寸发生改变。因此,应对地面覆盖物进行保护,使其在安转过程中及束后,在粘合剂完全固化前,免受阳光直射或其它热影响因素的影响。—般情况下,客户应负责确保采取这些必要措施。安装人员可要求采取这些措施,或者若商定由安装人员执行这些措施,则应由其执行。
4.4 粘结
4.4.1  薄板状合成橡胶地面覆盖物的粘接
在涂抹粘合剂之前,应切除合成橡胶地面覆盖物的接缝。两段接缝的重叠长度应为3 cm,工厂切割缝重叠在未切割接缝上。使用尺子(距离切割板缝不超过1 -2 cm间距)和切边刀或者直刀片(工具刀片),将工厂切割缝拉直,并刻划底板。边缘被切下的部分的宽度应约为2 cm。
若为单层地面覆盖物,则向下切割边缘。这样得到的接缝的底部就会稍大。切勿向上切割,否则可能导孜V形接缝裂开。
若为双层地面覆盖物,则利用钩型刀片切除底板的需切割部分。建议在安装好地面覆盖物后不要切割底部边缘。
一定要以无张力的方式将地面覆盖物放在未固化的粘合剂层中(安装时不要向下摩擦按压,但需严密粘接),然后向下按及,或用多面滚轮向下滚压。一定要注意粘合剂是否过期。在将地面覆盖物放在粘合剂层中时,粘合剂必须仍足够湿润,保证能湿润覆盖物的整个底面。检查湿润情况。
4.4.2  片状合成橡胶地面覆盖物的粘接
在粘接片状合成橡胶地面覆盖物时,最好将片状覆盖物铺放在整个室内或室内的大面积区域,包括切割镶边砖片。地面覆盖物在安装时,始终不得受到张力。
4.4.3  型材及楼梯踏板的粘接
建议使用干型或接触型分散粘合剂来粘接型材及楼梯踏板。在使用这些粘合剂时,需粘接的元件必须能够精确配合,否则后期便几乎不能加以纠正。在安装结束后,必须立即按压元件,在整个长度上向下轻轻敲严实。
4.5  接缝密封
4.5.1  热密封
带泡沫材料底面的地面覆盖物(符合DIN EN 1816和DIN EN 14521的要求)以及导热性地面覆盖物应始终被密封。原则上,对于不带泡沫材料底面的地面覆盖物(符合DIN EN 1817、DIN EN 14521和DIN EN 12199的要求)而言,无需密封。若基材容易受湿气影响以及位于水接触量大的室内(即频繁清洗),则在使用分散粘合剂时,必须进行接缝密封。
只有在粘合剂完全固化后才能执行热密封,原则上,最早的热密封时间是24小时后,但最好是2-3天后再进行热密封(参见制造商的说明X使用特殊铣削工具或开槽工具来打开接缝,打开接缝的宽度应约为3.5 mm,必须仔细清洁接缝。可使用自动热熔机(焊接线必须在不受力的状态下穿过机器)或者带快焊喷嘴的手动焊机来加工焊丝。
一定要避免超过或低于规定加工温度的情况。工作速度应使得融化的焊丝能够轻松地进入磨槽( 2.5 -3.0米/分钟)采用如下两个步骡来去除多余材料:
·在焊丝尚未冷却时,用带修整导向件的锋利的玄月形切刀来执行第—步去除。
·只有在接缝完全冷却之后,才能进行第二步去除——去掉多余材料,使接缝与地板表面相平,期间依然使用玄月形切刀。
若没有玄月形切刀,则可使用合适的修整刀,在去除多余焊丝时,所述修整刀只能在接合区域内执行修整。
4.5.2  利用单或双组分接缝密封剂来进行密封
使用单或双组分反应性树脂接缝密封剂,可满足特殊的接缝密封要求(例如,在实验室中或者在保健区内)一定要遵循制造商指定的相关说明。
5. 相关标准及技术简介
5.1 工业安全
Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV),发布于2004年1 2月23日(BGBI.I S 3758),根据2008年1 2月18日法令第2条修订(BGBI.I S 2768)
5.2  合成橡胶地板标准
DIN EN 685
弹性、纺织及复合地面覆盖物——分类2007年11月
DIN EN 1816
弹性地面覆盖物——带泡沫材料底面的光滑同质及异质橡胶地面覆盖物的规范1 998年5月
DIN EN 1817
弹性地面覆盖物——光滑同质及异质橡胶地面覆盖物的规范1 998年5月
DIN EN 12199
弹性地面覆盖物——同质及异质凸纹橡胶地面覆盖物的规范1 998年5月
DIN EN 12466
弹性地面覆盖物——术语1 998年6月
DIN EN 14041
弹性、纺织及复合地面覆盖物——主要特征2008年5月
DIN EN 14521
弹性地面覆盖物——带或不带泡沫材料底面但具有装饰层的光滑橡胶地面覆盖物的规范2004年9月
5.3  合成橡胶地板粘合剂标准
DIN EN 14259
地面覆盖物用粘合剂——机械电气性能要求2004年7月
DIN EN 1372
粘合剂——地板及墙覆盖物用粘合剂的测试方法——剥离测试1 999年1 0月
DIN EN 1373
粘合剂——地板及墙覆盖物用粘合剂的测试方法——剪切测试1 999年10月
DIN EN 1903
粘合剂——塑料或橡胶地面覆盖物或墙覆盖物用粘合剂的浏试方法——加速老化后的尺寸变化检测2008年6月
DIN EN 13415
地面覆盖物用粘合剂的测试——粘合剂膜及成分的电阻性检测2002年8月
5.4  地板安装工程标准
5.5 TKB技术简介
TKB技术简介6
地面覆盖物、木板覆盖物及地板砖所适用的馒刀齿形大小2007年5月
TKB技术简介8
用于安装地面覆盖物和镶木地板的基材评估和制备2004年6月
TKB技术简介9
地板平整剂技术规范及安装2008年4月
5.6 其它标准及技术简介
5.7 参考文件及注释
本技术简介中的内容基于出版人员的所有相关知识。其仅供信息参考之用,为非约束性指导文件,不具备任何形式的代表或保证作用。若有疑问,应执行测试安装。
 
校对者注释:
条目3.2.3 同质和异质凸纹橡胶地板(符合DIN EN 12199要求)
本条目所述“厚度不超过4.Omm,建议使用分散粘合剂”,这是针对德国而言。德国的粘合剂工业发达,水性分散乳液型粘合剂可以粘贴厚度小于4.Omm的橡胶地板,国内却没有这样的粘合剂。国内水性分散乳液型粘合剂制造商给出的数据为厚度小于2.5mm适用。
在德国,优成公司有两款水性粘合剂可以粘贴4.Omm厚度的橡胶地板:KE66和NEW KE
2000S。优成在中国制造的KE 2000S只能粘贴2.5mm以下厚度橡胶地板,与德国新2000S不同。德国汉高妥善有一款K150水性分散乳液型粘合剂也可以粘贴4.Omm以下厚度的橡胶地板。
在中国,橡胶地板的黏贴,情况有点复杂。
首先,德国之外的橡胶地板都或多或少存在粘合剂适配性的问题。不同厂家、甚至同厂家同型号,不同颜色的地板对粘合剂存在敏感的适配性。更有甚者,同一卷地板背衬存在光面和毛面,粘合剂适配性截然不同。
早在2008年,笔者发现双组分聚氨酯粘合剂粘不住韩国某品牌的橡胶片材。此后,大规模的测试发现,德国诺拉之外的橡胶地板,或多或少存在粘合剂适配性问题。与此同时,优成公司也发现这个问题,并且将此一问题告知业内。优成公司为此开发出了对橡胶地板适应性更好的双组分环氧树脂粘合剂KR420。特朋紧追其后乜开发出类同类产品。此类粘合剂对绝大部分橡胶地板具有适配性。
遗憾的是,在2011年之前,作为行业领袖的汉高妥善部门,对此一无所知,未经适配性测试,销售人员无知的向地板商推销R710双组分聚氨酯粘合剂,导致整个行业对此了解不多,出现粘结力问题以后,茫然不知所措。
施工橡胶地板之前,只要不是德国诺拉产品,建议进行适配性测试,以便确定粘合剂针对性的粘结强度。
适配测试很简单:地板条切割成5cm宽度,长度超过30cm即可。头部3cm不粘贴,企图粘贴后重物压实,基板建议采用木板。养护温度200C一230C,5~7天后使用电子弹簧秤90度角剥离地板条。按照EN1372标准,剥离力超过10kg为优秀,该型粘合剂可以用于橡胶地板安装。
针对一个品牌某—个型号的测试,并非一次即可。建议每个批次都要测试。尤其是原产亚洲的产品。
 
Installation of Elastomer Flooring
Tables of contents
1. Introduction
2. Classification of Elastomer Flooring
2.1 Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surface according to DIN EN 1817
2.2 Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surface and Foam Backing according to DIN EN 1816
2.3 Relief Elastomer Flooring according to DIN EN12199
2.4 Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surface and a decorative Layer according to DIN EN14521
3. Adhesives for Elastomer Flooring
3.1 Adhesive Types
3.1.1 Dispersion Adhesives
3.1.2 Reaction Resin Adhesives
3.1.3 Solvent-based Contact Adhesives
3.1.4 Dry Adhesives
3.2 Selection of Adhesive Type
3.2.1 Selection Criteria
3.2 .2 Homogenous and heterogenous Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surface, with or without Foam Backing (Floor Coverings according to DIN EN 1816, DIN EN 1817 and DIN EN14521 ).
3.2.3 Homogenous and heterogenous Relief Elastomer Flooring (Floor Coverings according to DIN EN 12199)
3.2.4 Profiles and Stairtreads
4. Installation of Elastomer Flooring
4.1 Substrate
4.2 Storage and Conditioning
4.3 Installation Conditions
4.4 Bonding
4.4.1 Bonding of Elastomer Flooring in Sheets
4.4.2 Bonding of Elastomer Flooring in Tiles
4.4.3 Bonding of Profiles and Stairtreads
4.5 Seam Sealing
4.5.1 Thermal Joint Sealing
4.5.2 Joint Sealing with l- or 2-component Joint Sealers
5. Relevant Standards and technical Briefing Notes
5.1 Industrial Safety
5.2 Standards for Elastomer Flooring
5.3 Standards for Adhesives for Elastomer Flooring
5.4 Standards for Floor Covering Work
5.5 TKB Technical Briefing Notes
5.6 Other Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
5.7 Literature and Commentaries
 
 
1. Introduction
This technical briefing note advises the installer on selection of installation materials for elastomer flooring. It contains information on the different types of elastomer flooring, classified according to the relevant European standards. When installing elastomer flooring, the specific characteristics must be taken into consideration. Adhesive types are classified relative to composition, type of processing and setting behaviour.
General note:
Residual indentations visible under a spotlight, caused by high punctual loads, can never be
completely avoided with resilient floor coverings. However, they can be minimized by selecting the right adhesive, application quantity (use of TKB recommended notched trowel with suitable notch sizes),  proper processing and choice of appropriate chair/furniture sliders (large and level
contact surface, no sharp edges) and/or use of suitable pressure distribution underlays under
movable furniture or rollers (type W according to EN 12529). This also includes that future use must comply with floor construction.
2. Classification of Elastomer Flooring
Commonly, elastomer flooring is also called rubber flooring. This type of flooring is available in form of sheets or tiles and is fully bonded during installation.
2.1 Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surface according to DIN EN 1817
Homogenous or heterogenous elastomer flooring in sheets or tiles with smooth surface, including grained or embossed surfaces and smoothed backing. For homogenous floor coverings, the wear layer thickness corresponds to the overall thickness. For heterogenous floor coverings, wear layer thickness shall be at least l.0 mm. The overall thickness of both types of floor covering
shall be at least l.8 mm.
2.2 Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surface and Foam Backing according to DIN EN 1816
Homogenous or heterogenous elastomer flooring in sheets or tiles with smooth surface, including grained or embossed surfaces and foam backing. Wear layer thickness shall be at least l,0 mm with an overall thickness of minimum 3.5 mm.
2.3 Relief Elastomer Flooring according to DIN EN 12199
Homogenous or heterogenous relief elastomer flooring in sheets or tiles, e.g. rubber napped
flooring. For homogenous floor coverings, wear layer thickness corresponds to the overall thickness. For heterogenous floor coverings, the wear layer thickness shall be at least l.0 mm.
2.4 Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surface and decorative Layer according to DIN EN 14521
Elastomer floor coverings in form of sheets and tiles with smooth surface with decorative layer, with or without foam backing. The overall thickness for floor coverings without foam backing shall be at least l.8 mm and with foam backing n:inimum 2.5 mm.
3. Adhesives for Elastomer Floor Coverings
3.1 Types of Adhesives
3.1.1 Dispersion Adhesives
Dispersion adhesives consist of organic binding materials dispersed in water, inorganic fillers and additives. Setting takes place based on a physical process when the water contained in the adhesive evaporates. The setting properties of dispersion adhesives are mainly influenced by the climatic conditions of the installation environment. High temperatures and/or low humidity accelerate, low temperatures and/or high humidity delay the setting process.
Dispersion adhesives for one-sided application for bonding of elastomer flooring require an absorbent substrate. They are applied with the specified notched trowel on prepared substrate.
Dispersion contact adhesives are processed using the contact bonding method. They are applied't both sides - the'sprepared substrate and floor covering backing - and must have sufficiently aired before installing the floor covering. They are mostly used for small area installations, e.g. installation of baseboards and flooring on stairs.
3.1.2 Reaction Resin Adhesives
Reaction resin adhesives consist of chemically reactive organic binding materials, inorganic fillers and additives. Reaction resin adhesives for elastomer flooring are mainly 2-component systems based onspolyurethane or epoxy resins and cure by chemical reaction. The curing speed of these adhesives is essentially influenced by the temperature of adhesive, substrate and floor covering. 2-component reaction resin adhesives require exact compliance with prescribed mixing ratio and careful mixing. They only have a limited pot life and open time.
3.1.3 Solvent-based Contact Adhesives
Solvent-based  contact  adhesives  consist  of dissolved organic binding materials, highly volatile solvents (up t0 80 %), inorganic fillers and additives. From a work safety, consumer and environmental protection perspective, use of these adhesives shall be reduced to the absolute minimum technically necessary. Consequently, their use is restricted to bonding of baseboards and flooring on stairs. For these applications, dispersion contact and dry adhesives are an alternative.
Note:
The German Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV) (Ordinance on Hazardous Substances) and the German Technische Regeln Gefahrstoffe (TRGS) (Technical Rules for Hazardous Substances) 610 massively restrict use of adhesives with high solvent levels for occupational health and safety reasons. The solvents used are highly volatile, flammable and harmful compounds.'sln case the
existing threshold values can not be safely adhered to, measures prescribed in GefStoffV must be taken.
According to decision No. 1348/2008/EC to amend RL 76/769/EC (Restriction Guideline), neoprene-based contact adhesives containing more than 0.1 % of cyclohexane, shall only be marketed to private consumers in package sizes of maximum 350 gr.
3.1.4 Dry Adhesives
Dry adhesives are sheets or strips which are self-adhesive on both sides and come in rolls of
varying width. Dry adhesives are pre-dried by the manufacturer and therefore do not require airing, setting or drying time. After proper installation, they are immediatel; load-bearing.
3.2 Selection of Type of Adhesive
3.2.1 Selection Criteria
The following criteria apply for selection of an adhesive for installation of elastomer flooring:
. Floor covering characteristics such as thickness, size or backing.
. Demands on flooring
-  thermal stress caused by extreme temperature fluctuations or direct exposure to sunlight on surface (glass constructions such as in conservatories or under glass domes)
-  mechanical stress caused by forklifts or lift trucks
-  moisture on surface (e.g. from cleaning)
.Type of substrate
-  absorbent substrate
-  non-absorbent substrate
3.2.2 Homogenous and heterogenous Elastomer Flooring with smooth Surfsace, with or           without Foam Backing (Flooring according to DIN EN 1816, DIN EN 1817 and DIN EN 14521)
For these floor coverings, suitable dispersion adhesives are recommended.
3.2.3 Relief homogenous and heterogenous Elastomer Flooring (according to DIN EN 12199)
For these floor coverings, suitable dispersion or reaction  resin  adhesives  are  recommended depending on floor covering thickness and intended  use.  Dispersion  adhesives  are recommended for floor covering thicknesses up to 4.0 mm.
For floor covering thicknesses of more than 4.0 mm and high demands on bond as well as for non-absorbent substrates, 2-component reaction resin adhesives shall be used.
3.2.4 Profiles and Stairtreads
For these moldings, dry adhesive or dispersion contact adhesives are recommended. The use of adhesives with high content of solvents shall be restricted to the absolute minimum technically necessary.
4. Installation of Elastomer Floor Coverings
4.1 Substrate
TKB Technical briefing note 8 "Assessment and Preparation of Substrates for Installation of Floor Covering and Parquet as well as BEB Technical briefing'snote "Beurteilen und Vorbereiten von Untergrunden. Verlegen von elastischen und textilen Bodenbelags;en, Schichtstoffelementen
(Laminat), Parkett und Holzpflaster, Beheizte und unbeheizte FuBbodenkonstruktionen" ("Assess-
ment and Preparation of Substrates, Installation of elastic and textile floor coverings, laminated
elements (laminate), parquet and wood block. Heated and non-heated floor constructions") contain detailed instructions and specifications regarding required tests.
4.2. Storage and Conditioning
Elastomer flooring shall be stored in a dry place, tiles in pairs with upper side or underside facing each other, sheets are stored standing in rolls. Before installation, the floor covering shall be conditioned for at least 24 hours at a room temperature of min. 18 0C and a relative humidity
not exceeding 75 %. For flooring that comes in tiles, it has been proven beneficial to spread out
covering in installation room or in large parts of the room, including cutting of the border tiles.
4.3 Installation Conditions
The relative humidity shall preferably lie between 40 - 65 %, however it shall not exceed 75 %. Ambient air temperature as well as temperature of the installation materials, e.g. floor covering and adhesive shall be at least 18 0C. In departure from DIN 18365, minimum substrate temperature shall be 18 0C in order to keep temperature difference between installation and later use to a minimum. During curing phase of the adhesive, rising temperatures (e.g. exposure to direct sunlight) may cause dimensional changes to the floor covering. Consequently, floor covering shall be protectead from direct sunlight or other thermal effects during and after installation, until adhesive has completeI cured. Generally, it's under the customer's purview
to ensure these essential measures. Installer may request these measures or perform them himself after having voiced reservations.
4.4 Bonding
4.4.1 Bonding of Elastomer Floor Covering in Sheets
Before applying the adhesive, the seams of elastomer floor covering shall be cut. Both lengths are laid out overlapp;nsg 'for 3 cm, the factoryscut seam overlapping the uncut seam. Using a ruler (max. 1 - 2 cm clearance to cut sheet sesam) and an edge cutter or a straight blade (utility blade) the factory-cut seam is straightened and the underlaying sheet is scribed. The width of the cut edge strip shall be approx. 2 cm.
With one-layer floor coverings, the cut edge strip is taken off downwards. This results in a seam slightly open at the bottom. Never remove the strip upwards because this might result in a gaping V-joint .
With two-layer floor coverings, the cut strip of the bottom sheet is removed using a hooked blade. It is not recommended to cut the bottom edge after floor covering is installed.
The floor covering shall always be placed in the fresh adhesive besd free of tension (no press-down installation but narrow joints), then rubbed down and/or rolled down using a multi-sectional roller. Always observe open time of the adhesive. When placing the floor covering into the adhesive bed, adhesive must still be sufficiently wet to wet the entire backing of the covering. Check wetting.
4.4.2    Bonding of Elastomer Floor Covering in Tiles
When bonding elastomer floor coverings in tiles, it has proven beneficial to lay down the tiles in the entire room or in larger areas of the room, including cutting of border tiles. The floor covering shall always be installed free of tension.
4.4.3    Bonding of Profiles and Stairtreads
Dry or dispersion contact adhesives are recommended for bonding of profiles and stairtreads. When using these adhesives, the elements to be glued must be fitted exactly since subsequent corrections are almost impossible to perform. After installation, the elements must be immediately pressed and tapped down firmly over the entire length.
4.5 Seam Sealing
4.5.1 Thermal Sealing
Elastomer floor coverings with foam backing (DIN EN 1816 and DIN EN 14521) as well as conductive floor coverings shall always be sealed. Principally, for floor coverings without foam backing (DIN EN 1817, DIN EN 14521 and DIN EN 12199) sealing is not necessary. For substrates sensitive to moisture as well as in rooms with intensive water contact, i.e. frequent wet cleaning, seam sealing is an absolute must when dispersion adhesives are used.
Thermal sealing shall only be performed after adhesive has fully cured, as a rule after 24 hours at the earliest, but better yet after 2 - 3 days (see manufacturer's instruction). The joints are opened using a special miller or groover over a width of approx. 3.5 mm. The joint shall be carefully cleaned. The welding cord can either be processed using an automatic fuse machine (cord must pass the machine tension-free) or a hand welder with attached quick-weld nozzle.
Absolutely avoid to exceed or fall short of specified processing temperature. Work at a pace that allows melted cord to easily run into mill groove (2.5 - 3.0 meters/min). Excess material is removed in two steps:
. The first removal step is performed when welding cord has not yet cooled down using a sharp quarter moon knife with trim guide attached.
.  The second step takes place only after joints have completely cooled down - excess is
   removed flush to flooring surface, also using a quarter moon knife.
If no quarter moon knife is at hand, an appropriate trimming knife can be used which will only work in the joint area when removing excess welding cord.
4.5.2. Sealing with l or 2-component Joint Sealers
Special requirements for seam sealing, e.g. in laboratory areas or in the healthcare sector, are met by using l- or 2-component reaction resin joint sealers. Alv:ays observe the relevant instructions specified by manufacturer. Relevant Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
5.1 Industrial Safety
Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV), Published December 23, 2004 (BGBI. I S 3758), amended by article 2 0f the ordinance of December 18, 2008 (BGBI. I S 2768) TRGS 430 lsocyanate  -  efahrdungsbeurteilung  und SchutzmaBnahmen (March 2009); Ausschuss fur Gefahrstoffe (AGS); GMBI No. 18/19 (04.05.2009) TRGS 610
5.2 Standards for Elastomer Flooring
DIN EN 685
Resilient, textile and laminate floor coverings –Classification November 2007
DIN EN 1816
Resilient floor coverings - specification for homogeneous and heterogeneous smooth rubber floor coverings with foam backing May1998
DIN EN 1817
Resilient floor coverings - specification for smooth homogeneous and heterogeneous rubber floor coverings May 1998
DIN EN 12199
Resilient floor coverings - specification for
homogeneous and heterogeneous relief rubber floor coverings May 1998
DIN EN 12466
Resilient floor coverings –Vocabulary June 1998
DIN EN 14041
Resilient, textile and laminate floor coverings - essential characteristics May 2008
DIN EN 14521
Resilient floor coverings - specification for smooth rubber floor coverings with or without foam backing with decorative layer September 2004
5.3 Standards for Elastomer Flooring Adhesives
DIN EN 14259
Adhesives for floor coverings - requirements for mechanical and electrical performance July 2004
DIN EN 1372
Adhesives - Test method for adhesives for floor and wall covering adhesives - Peel test October 1999
DIN EN 1373
Adhesives - Test method for adhesives for floor and wall covering - Shear test October 1999
DIN EN 1903
Adhesives - Test method for adhesives for plastic or rubber floor coverings or wall coverings -Determination of dimensional changes after accelerated aging June 2008
DIN EN 13415
Test  of  adhesives  for  floor  coverings-Determination of electrical resistance of adhesive
films and composites August 2002
5.4 Standards for Floor Installation Work
DIN 18365
VOB  Vergabe-  und  Vertragsordnung  fur Bauleistungen - Teil C: Allgemeine Technische
Vertragsbedingungen fur Bauleistungen (ATV) -Allgemeine Regelungen fur Bauarbeiten aller Art -
Bodenbelagsarbeiten October 2006
5.5 TKB Technical Briefing Notes
TKB-Technical Briefing Note 6
Trowel notch sizes for floor coverings, wood flooring and tiles May 2007
TKB- Technical Briefing Note 8
Assessment and preparation of substrates for installation of floor coverings and parquet June 2004
TKB- Technical Briefing Note 9
Technical specification and installation of floor levelling compounds April 2008
5.6. Other Standards and Technical Briefing Notes
5.7. Literature and Commentaries
Harald Kaulen, Gunter Hahn, Ortwin Baumann Erlauterungen   zur   DIN   18365   -
Bodenbelagsarbeiten und DIN 18299, Ausgabe 2002, 6. Auflage 2004
Arbeitskreis Bodenbelage im Bundesverband Estrich und Belag e. V. Kommentar zur DIN 18365 - Bodenbelagsarbeiten
The details and information in this technical briefing note are based on the best knowledge of the publishers. They are provided for informational purposes only and as a non-binding guideline without representation or warranty of any kind. When in doubt, test installations shall be performed.

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