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PVC地板安装
目录
1.简介
2.根据欧洲标准的PVC地板分类
3.PVC地板粘合剂
3.1 粘合剂类型
3.1.1 乳液型粘合剂
3.1.2 反应性树脂粘合剂
3.1.3 溶剂基接触型粘合剂
3.1.4 干型粘合剂
3.2 粘合剂类型选择
4.PVC地版安装
4.1 基材
4.2 储存及调温
4.3 安装条件
4.4 粘接
4.4.1 PVC地版粘接
4.4.2 弹性地板砖及地板砖状PVC地板的安装
4.4.3 薄板状PVC地板安装(包括接缝切边)
4.4.4 型材粘接
4.4.5 PVC地板的导电性粘接
4.4.5.1铜条网的导电性粘接
4.4.5.2横向导电层的导电性粘接
4.4.5.3双重导电性粘接
4.4.5.4带导电性底面的导电性地板
4.4.6  衬底上的PVC地板粘接
4.5 接缝密封
4.5.1 热焊
4.5.2 冷焊
5.相关标准及信息表
5.1 工业安全
5.2 PVC地板标准
5.3 PVC地面覆盖物安装用粘合剂的标准9
5.4地板安装工程标准
5.5 TKB技术简介
5.6 其它标准及信息表
5.7 参考文献及注释
 
1.简介
本技术简介就PVC地板的安装材料选择向安装人员给予了建议。内容涉及根据相关欧洲标准分类的各种PVC地板。安装PVC地板时,必须考虑不同地板类型的具体特征。根据成分、处理类型及固化特性对粘合剂类型予以划分。
本简介不涉及特殊结构(例如运动场地板结构或工业地板)上的PVC地板安装。
2.根据欧洲标准的PVC地板分类
PVC地板由聚氯乙烯、矿料、色素、增塑剂、稳定剂及其它添加剂制成。这类地板可为薄板状、地板砖状以及地板元件/厚板状,采用粘接法安装。本技术简介中未讲述其它安装方法。
PVC地板可采用多种制造形式和设计。各欧洲标准中对不同PVC地板的分类进行了讲述:
·符合DIN EN 649要求的不带衬底的同质和异质聚氯乙烯地面覆盖物
·符合DIN EN 650要求且其底面由聚酯毡或黄麻或聚酯毡/PVC复合材料制成的PVC地板
·符合DIN EN 651要求的带泡沫材料层的PVC地板
·符合DIN EN 652要求的带软木底面的PVC地板
·符合DIN EN 653要求的膨胀型(加衬垫)聚氯乙烯PVC地板
·符合DIN EN 654要求的弹性PVC地板砖
·符合DIN EN 13845要求的颗粒防滑性能得以增强  的PVC地板
3.PVC地板粘合剂
3.1  粘合剂类型
3.1.1  乳液型粘合剂
乳液型粘合剂是将有机粘合材料分散在水、无机填料及添加剂中而得到。固化基于物理过程(即粘合剂中所合的水蒸发)而发生。乳液型粘合剂的固化性能主要受安装环境条件的影响。高温及/或低湿度会加速固化,低温及,或离湿度会推迟固化。
对于用于单面涂抹的乳液型粘合剂而言,安装PVC地板时,需要使用湿粘接法或压敏(干)粘接法。若使用压敏(干)粘接法,则用于该方法的粘合剂必须经过制造商的专门认可。湿粘接法需要使用吸水性基材。若基材不具有吸水性,则必须首先涂抹一层厚度为2 mm的地板平整剂,以制备吸水性底层地板。
利用接触粘合法,来处理接触型乳液型粘合剂。在两面(即预制基材面以及地面覆盖物底面)均涂抹这种粘合剂,且在安装地面覆盖物之前,必须风干至足够程度。这些粘合剂主要用于小面积安装,例如楼梯上的底板和地板的安装。
3.1.2反应性树脂粘合剂
反应性树脂粘合剂由具有化学反应性的有机粘合材料、无机填料及添加剂构成。PVC地板用反应性树脂粘合剂主要是基于聚氨酯或环氧树脂的双组分系统,通过化学反应实现固化。这些粘合剂的固化速度主要受粘合剂、基材和地面覆盖物的温度的影响。双组分反应性树脂粘合剂需要完全遵循混合比要求,并应小心混合。其罐内存放期和开罐后的存放期均较
短。
3.1.3  溶剂型接触型粘合剂
溶剂型接触型粘合剂由已溶解的有机粘合材料、高挥发性溶剂(高达80%)、无机填料及添加剂构成。鉴于工作安全性、从用户及环倮角度方面考虑,若技术允许,则尽量减少这些粘合剂的使用。在所有应用中,还可代之以接触型乳液型粘合剂或干型粘合剂。
注:
出于职业健康与安全方面的考虑,德国“Gefahrstoffverordnung”(GefStoffV)(有害物质法令)
以及德国“Technische Regel fur Gefahrstoffe (TRGS)(有害物质技术条例)61 0”中广泛限制对溶剂含量高的粘合剂的使用。所使用的溶剂是高挥发性的可燃有害制剂。若不能遵循既定阙值,则必须采取GefStoffV中所述的方法 。
3.1.4干型粘合剂
干型粘合剂呈薄板状或带状,其两面均有粘性,宽度不定。干型粘合剂在交货后即可使用,因此无需因风干、固化及干燥而耗费时间。在正确安装后,即可承重。使用时,必须咨询相应制造商。
3.2  粘合剂类型选择
最好是使用不合溶剂、排放极低且用于单面涂抹(单面粘合剂)的乳液型粘合剂(例如EMICODE EC1粘合剂),来安装PVC地板。此外,也可以使用接触型乳液型粘合剂(例如,用于楼梯和底板)、反应性树脂粘合剂(例如用于非吸收基材上或用于承载负荷较大的情况)。仅使用注明了适用于PVC地板安装的粘合剂。一定要遵循用量或TKB刮刀凹口大小方面的说明。
4.PVC地板安装
4.1  基层
TKB技术简介8“用于安装地面覆盖物和镶木地板的基层评估和制备”以及BEB-Merkblatt(BEB信息表)“Beurteilen    und    Vorbereiten    vonUntergrunden,Verlegen    von    elastischen    undtextilen    Bodenbelagen,    Schichtstoffelementen(Laminat), Parkett und Holzpflastero Beheizte undunbeheizte FuBbodenkonstruktionen“(基层的评估和制备。弹性及纺织地面覆盖物、复合地板、镶木地板及铺地木板的安装。受热及非受热地面结构)中包
含所需测试的相关说明详情及规范。
4.2储存及调温
应将PVC地板储存在干燥且温度为15 0C - 25 0C的地方。将卷材竖立放置,不要受到阳光照射。地板片材以及地板元件,厚板则平放叠置在箱内,最高可叠放8箱。
在安装前进行调温时,将地面覆盖物在不低于18 0C的室温下,存放至少24小时。相对湿度最好为40 -65%,但不得超过75%。若地板为面板形式,则最好在安装前,用高压空气吹扫表面。
4.3  安装条件
相对空气湿度最好为40 - 65%,但不得超过75%。环境温度以及安装材料(例如地面覆盖物和粘合剂)的温度不得低于18 0C,地表温度不得低于15 0C。根据安装材料的固化、干燥和反应时间,在安装前、安装期间以及安装结束后7天内,应一直保持3天上述室内环境条件。
若在粘合剂固化过程中温度升高(例如受阳光直射),则可能导致地面覆盖物的尺寸发生改变。因此,应对地板及安装材料进行保护,使其在安装前、安装过程中及支装结束后,在粘合剂完全固化前,免受阳光直射或其它热影响因素的影响。在粘合剂完全固化前,不得在地板上放置任何家具。
4.4.1  PVC地板粘接
应使用第3节所述的粘合剂来进行粘接。应始终遵循地板及粘合剂制造商的说明。
使用推荐尺寸的TKB齿形刮刀,在基层上单面涂抹乳液型粘合剂。建议使用宽度为18 cm或21 cm的齿形刮刀。若使用宽度为28 cm的齿形刮刀,则可能导致粘合剂汇集,从而形成气泡状凸起。根据基材及粘合剂的适用性,可使用湿粘接法或压敏(干)粘接法来安装PVC地板。
湿粘接法:
在吸水性基材上,在湿润粘合剂层等一小段时间之后,将PVC地板放入该湿润粘合剂层中。一定要注意开放时间,即地板底面可被粘合剂充分湿润的时间。
压敏(干粥镌{法若制造商未作任何限制,则压敏(干)粘接法可用于吸水性和非吸水性基材。对于非吸水性基材而言,优选使用粘合剂用量少的TKB齿形刮刀尺寸,以便最大程度地降低出现残留压痕的风险。使用这种方法,将地板放入完全风干的粘合剂层中。在
致密的非吸水性基材上,用手指检查所形成的粘合剂膜是否干燥且具有粘性(防止残留水份形成鼓包)。用指尖轻触粘合剂层时,手指上不应占有粘合剂。这种“压敏粘接”的使用限制较大,且容易受环境条件的影响。在执行压敏粘接时,必须将地板放入粘合剂层中。较之于湿粘接法,利用压敏粘接法时,出现残留压痕的几率更高。
对于这两种粘接法而言,将地板放入粘合剂层中的时间取决于安装室内的主要环境条件。
无论选择哪种粘接方法,在将地板放入粘合剂层中后,应立即利用覆盖有毛毡的软木板,从中间向外侧的方式,向下摩擦按压,以防止出现气穴。在粘合剂制造商所规定的等待时间过去之后,立即用重量不小子50 kg的多面滚轮向下滚压地板。这样就确保了地面覆盖物底面达到最佳湿润效果。从中心向外侧滚压,然后在30 - 60分钟后,重复此操作。
—般备注:
弹性地板上难免出现因重负荷物引起的、在聚光灯下可见的残留压痕。但是,通过选用正确的粘合剂、适量涂覆(使用TKB推荐的缺口尺寸适当的齿形刮刀)、正确处理、选择适当的座椅,家具滑块(大而平整的接触面、无尖锐边缘)及/或在可移动的家具下设置适用的压力分配衬底或者使用滚轮(如EN 12529所述W型),可以最大程度地减少所述压痕。
4.4.2  弹性地板砖及地板砖状PVC地板的安装
在安装地板砖时,必须始终遵循制造商关于铺设方向的说明。测量时,确保边料堆放空间得到均匀分配。沿着预定基准线(标出)散放第一批地板砖,然后从所述基准线处开始涂抹粘合剂。若为多个房间相连的情况,则应遵循铺设方向要求。为能够最好地避免使用过程中出现的残留压痕,应使用湿层法安装PVC地板。在非吸水性基材上,只能根据制造商的说明,使用反应性树脂粘合剂或干型粘合剂或采用压敏粘接法。在铺设好PVC地面覆盖物之后,必须将其向下摩擦按压。
4.4.3  薄板状PVC地板安装(包括接缝切边)
必须切割扳材纵向的接缝边缘,因为只有精确切割的接缝才能保证接缝的整洁性。利用切条器或切边刀,将第—板材边缘切直。对于第二板材而言,可采用两种方法:
(a)若房间较小(在涂抹粘合剂前):
      将已切割过的板材放在另一段板材上,然后沿着  上层板材的边缘切割所述另一段板材。使用钩型刀片,在相反的方向上,对最终得到的板条进行  切割。
(b)若房间较大(在涂抹粘合剂后):
      使用划线器或油毡切,沿着已放进粘合剂层的下层板材的边缘进行切割,然后用钩型刀片对最终得到的板条进行切割。
在对各板材进行了切割之后,将所述导向板材对半折叠,确保获得较大的半径,以避免地板上出现折痕。对于接下来的板材而言,应在基材上标注接缝走向,以供定位之用。在将剩余板材折叠之后,用直线标尺或钢尺,在折叠边缘上直接标注—条直线。建议沿着直线方向设置包裹胶带,完成后,去掉该直线,然后立即为该段板材的第二半涂抹粘合剂。从胶带位置开始,使用推荐尺寸的TKB齿形刮刀,均匀涂抹粘合剂。然后将折叠的板材轻轻放入未固化的粘合剂中,其中这段板材的长度约为10 cm。这样,在处理第二段板材时,粘合剂依然较为新鲜,并且极大地避免了地板表面该区域内出现明显痕迹。
在相应的风干时间结束后,沿着标记铺放导向板材。然后将所有地板板材均轻轻放入粘合剂层中,期间应避免出现气穴。必须消除顶部的板材的弯曲度,并将其下拉。然后,根据第4.4.1节所述,对地板进行向下摩擦按压和滚压处理。
在粘合剂制造商规定的等待时间结束后,在整个地板表面上进行向下滚压处理。在将板材的第二半折叠后,从之前涂抹的粘合剂层开始,涂抹粘合剂。一定要避免在同一区域涂抹两层粘合剂,否则,在安装结束后便呈现出来。接下来的处理与板材第一半的处理方法相同。
建议使用接触型乳液型粘合剂来粘接型材。在使用这些粘合剂时,需粘接的元件必须能够精确配合,否则后期便几乎不能加以纠正,在安装结束后,必须立即按压元件,在整个长度上向下轻轻敲严实。
4.4.5  PVC地板的导电性粘接
由于房间的既定用途不同,因此对地板的静电性能要求也不同。对绝缘、防静电及导电性PVC地板进行了区分。导电性PVC地板需要使用导电性粘合剂。
将PVC地板和粘合剂安装设置在导电系统中,然后必须对该系统进行适当接地。现场必须准备合适的连接件。利用铜条来进行导电系统接地连接,且只能由具有相应资格的电工来执行这种连接。
4.4.5.1 铜条网的导电性粘结
通过安装在每行板材或地板砖下方中心的铜条,来实现导电。铜条端部应相互连接。应采用直线来标注铜条位置。使用日本的涂布器,沿着该直线涂抹薄薄一层导电性粘合剂,然后安装铜条,并在其上再涂抹薄薄一层粘合剂,以免边缘在后期被暴露出来。在每30 m2的表面上,需要进行一次连接,以均衡电位(由具有相应资格的电工执行)。
接下来,使用导电性粘合剂来安装导电性PVC地板。
4.4.5.2横向导电屡的导电性粘接
在整个区域涂抹导电性乳液型型底剂,从而形成一层横向导电层。这时,无需使用上述铜条网。在大约每30 mz的表面上,需要使用1m长的铜条进行一次连接,以均衡电位(由具有相应资格的电工执行)。若区域面积较犬,则各铜条之间的间距不得超过8 -10m。由于横向导电层能够大大降低基材的吸水性,因此通常采用压敏(干)粘接法进行安装。
4.4.5.3  双重导电性粘接
若导电性粘接还伴随着额外的过渡电阻RST(符合VDE 0100要求),则出于保护用户的目的,电阻至少应为50,000欧姆。无论何时,必须遵循地板制造商的说明。关键在于匹配地板和粘合剂的导电性。基材应充分干燥,否则可能因水分的存在,导致不能达到最低电阻要求。在每30m2的表面上需要使用1 m长的铜条进行一次连接,以均衡电位(由具有相应资格的电工执行)。
4.4.5.4带导电性底面的导电性地板
对于底面带有导电层的薄板状导电性地板而言,只能在重叠的板材的顶端,以垂直于板材的方向,根据制造商的说明,进行粘接和接地。在每30m2的表面上,需要进行一次连接,以均衡电位(由具有相应资格的电工执行)。—般情况下,使用导电性粘合剂,将地板粘接在整个区域。
4.4.6  衬底上的PVC地板粘接
—般情况下,将地板与衬底结合后得到的复合结构具有与地板本身不同的技术性能。
若需了解复合结构的具体功能,请联系PVC地面覆盖物及衬底的制造商。在安装期间,应确保衬底和PVC薄板状地板的边缘不具有一致性。根据制造商的说明,应使用乳液型型地板平整剂或双组分聚氨酯地板平整剂,来找平衬底。
4.5  接缝密刘
建议在商业区或在地面覆盖物暴露在不断变化的温度条件下时(例如地板下供热),一定要进行接缝密封。对于容易受湿气影响的基材(例如木质复合板或石膏板),以及对于使用工业湿法清洗器(例如清洁装置)的房间,以及对于卫生区和受到外部湿气入侵
(进入)的区域而言,一定要对接缝进行焊接。只有在粘合剂彻底固化后,才能进行焊接。根据粘合剂的类型和室内坏境条件,这个过程可能需要几天的时间。必须始终严格遵循制造商的说明。
等待的时间越长,接缝部分受损和分离的可能性越小。切勿对设计地板和半弹性聚氯乙烯地板砖进行焊接。
4.5.1  热焊
可使用适合具体地板类型的PVC焊丝来对PVC地板进行热焊。若使用4mm焊丝,则使用宽度为3.3 mm的抛物线形切刀来切割接缝边缘,切割深度约为地面覆盖物厚度的2/3。对于带泡沫材料底面的地板而言,只需切割至泡沫材料部分。在墙壁连接区域中,使用
手动开槽工具来对地面覆盖物开槽。接缝宽度不得超过3.5 mm。然后彻底清洁凹槽(以吸尘方式或用喷射方式来清洁)。
可用焊接设备或配备快速焊接喷嘴的手动焊机,将焊丝插入接缝  压力和速度恒定不变。只有在遵循地板制造商的焊接温度规定的情况下,才能实现焊丝与地板之间的连接。为最大程度地降低对地板表面的损坏(例如带有表面涂层),应选择出气口较窄的焊接喷嘴。
采用如下两个步骤来去除多余材料:
·在焊丝尚未冷却时,用带修整导向件的锋利的玄月形切刀来执行第一步去除。
·只有在接缝完全冷却之后,才能进行第二步去除——去掉多余材料,使接缝与地板表面相平,期间依然使用玄月形切刀。
若没有玄月形切刀,则请使用合适的修整刀,在去除多余焊丝时,所述修整刀只能在接合区域内执行修整。
4.5.2  冷焊
若不使用热焊,也可使用冷焊剂,对PVC地板进行焊接。
该方法的使用需要一个前提,即接缝切口密集且干净利落。为保护地板表面,在接缝上覆盖有一层薄薄的粘合带。然后在接缝上方,用刀小心地切开粘合带。用相应的专用喷嘴将冷焊剂挤入接缝中,然后立即去掉粘合带。在至少3小时内,新焊接的区域内不得承受重量。
5.相关标准及信息表
下文列出了相应的标准和其它技术简介。这些标准和技术简介的版本是本技术简介出版时的有效版本。
5.1  工业安全
Gefahrstoffverordnung (GefStoffV),发布于2004年12月23日(BGBI.I S 3758),根据2008年12月8日法令第2条修正(BGBI. I S 2768)
5.2  PVC地板标准
DIN EN 649
弹性地面覆盖物——同质和异质聚氯乙烯地面覆盖物——规范01-2004
DIN EN 650
弹性地面覆盖物——黄麻底面或聚酯毡底面或带聚氯乙烯鹿面的聚酯毡上的聚氯乙烯地面覆盖物——规范01-1997
DIN EN 651
弹性地面覆盖物——带泡沫材料层的聚氯乙烯地面覆盖物——规范01-2004
DIN EN 652
弹性地面覆盖物——带软木底面的聚氯乙烯地面覆盖物——规范01-1997
DIN EN 653
弹性地面覆盖物——膨胀型(加衬垫)聚氯乙烯地面覆盖物——规范01-1997
DIN EN 654
弹性地面覆盖物半弹性聚氯乙烯地板砖  规范01-2004
DIN EN 12466
弹性地面覆盖物——词汇06-1998
DIN EN 13845
弹性地面覆盖物——具有颗粒防滑性能的聚氯乙烯地面覆盖物——规范10-2005
DIN EN 14041
弹性、纺织及复合地面覆盖物  主要特征05-2008
5.3  PVC地面覆盖物安装用粘合剂的标准
DIN EN 14259
地面覆盖物用粘合剂——机械电气性能要求07-2004
DIN EN 1372
粘合剂——地板及墙覆盖物用粘合剂的测试方法——剥离测试1999年10月
DIN EN 1903
粘合剂——塑料或橡胶地面覆盖物或墙覆盖物用粘合剂的测试方法——加速老化后的尺寸变化检测2008年6月
DIN EN 13415
地面覆盖物用粘合剂的测试—一粘合剂膜及成分的电阻性检测2002年8月
DIN 18365
VOB  Vergabe-  und  Vertragsordnung  fur Bauleistungen - Teil C:Allgemeine Technische
Vertragsbedingungen fur Bauleistungen (ATV) -Allgemeine Regelungen fur Bauarbeiten aller Art -Bodenbelagsarbeiten2006年10月
5.5  TKB技术简介
TKB技术简介6
地面覆盖物、木板覆盖物及地板砖所逶用的刮刀缺口尺寸2007年5月
TKB技术简介8
用于安装地面覆盖物和镶木地板的基材评估和制备2004年6月
TKB技术简介9
地板平整剂技术规范及安装2008年4月
5.6  其它标准及信息表
5.7  参考文献及注释
本技术简介中的内容基于我们所拥有的全部相关知识及最新技术。其仅供信息参考之用,是非约束性指导文件,不具备任何形式的代表或保证作用。若有疑问,应执行测试安装。应始终以地板和粘合剂制造商的建议和说明为准。
本件为翻译件,仅供参考,以英语原件的描述为准。
 
条目3.1.1乳液型粘合剂
本条中关于“乳液型粘合剂”的定义为“有填料”,也就是国内的无填料压敏型粘合剂不在此范围之内。国内独创的无填料丙烯酸乳液压敏型PVC地板粘合剂具有低成本、初粘好、无需掌握可施工时间、涂胶后1 2小时内都可粘贴的好处。但是此类产品有三个致命缺点:终粘强度低,很难达到EN1372标准要求的1.2N/mm剥离强度要求;胶层太薄,没有填充性;耐热性差,焊缝处容易脱胶。
条目3.2粘合剂类型选择
本条中干型粘合剂特指专用于PVC地板安装的双面胶带。如优成Sigan系列、妥善DT系列等产品。此类产品安装完毕即可承载,适用于快速安装要求的场所。更有苛刻要求,地板移除后,双面胶带在地面和地板背面都没有残胶。
条目3.1.1乳液型粘合剂
本条中关于重载环境需要高粘结强度、高剥离强度、高内聚力的反应型树脂粘合剂是完全正确的,每平方毫米负载超过3N,应该使用反应型树脂粘合剂。
中等负载、高人流量的非吸收性基层,可以使用具有压敏干粘特性的乳液型粘合剂,用于特定非吸收性基层,如瓷砖、水磨石、石材、丙烯酸或聚氨酯涂层。用于瓷砖与石材基层,需要注意表面是否存在防污涂层,如硅氟树脂涂层。
优成的NEW 2000S、妥善的K188E、特朋的T300等都是非常理想的适合湿态和压敏干粘法昀产品。
国内有一种水性乳液型粘合剂,市场上一般称作“树脂胶”或“压敏胶”,这个产品被广泛用于PVC片材和卷材的安装。该产品并非什么有价值的创新,国内早已应用二十余年,日常常见的封箱带、不干胶标签、自封口包装袋等事宜难过的就是这类粘合剂。特点为无填料,干燥以后胶膜透明,胶体极软,干透的胶膜比嚼过的口香糖残渣更软。
这个产品有四个好处:
一:非常好的初粘感受,施工体验性极佳,没有经验的工人非常喜欢。
二:涂布手感好,刮胶轻松。
三:无需控制可施工时间,刮胶完毕后20分钟至24小时都可以粘贴地板,利于没有经验的新工人和不负责任的施工人员操作。
四:低成本,每公斤涂布面积7-8平方米,单位造价低。
也有五个致命问题存在:
一:终粘强度低,很难做到EN1372标准规定的1.2N/mm之最低要求。
二:单位用胶量低和固含量低(固含量不足50%),导致单位面积涂胶不足,胶体没有填充性能,更进一步降低粘结强度和剥离强度。
三:不耐热,用于导电地板和卷材安装,遭遇焊枪热风以后,粘结强度几乎为零。
四:胶体太软,内聚力低,不可能达到DIN EN 12529标准规定之耐受家具脚轮碾压之要求。
五:此类粘合剂都不能作为采暖地面安装PVC她板只用。
有这么五个致命问题存在,为什么国内依然大规模使用呢?因为国内的行业规范相当滞后。目前行业内的粘合剂标准为【聚氯乙烯块状塑料地板胶粘剂行业标准】J C/T 550-2008,取代J C/T 550-1994。1994版规范要求粘合剂的拉拔强度为0.3Mpa,到了2008版,下降到了0.2Mpa。规范要求远低于EN1372标准。
PVC地板行业的从业人员鲜有关注安装技术者,地板商和施工人员重视低成本,缺乏相关专业知识。
行业标准的倒退和从业人员的无知是压敏胶大行其道的原因。
条目4.3 安装条件
注意安装环境的温湿度,超出范围强行施工必然增加返工概率。不要以为低温环境下打开空调立即能满足施工温度要求。空调对地表的升温效能很低,打开空调至少三天地表温度才能与室温同步。尤其注意安装完毕后地板温度不能剧烈变化,切忌阳光直射。直射的阳光迅速使地板升温,粘合剂未固化之前的地板尺寸变化将导致不可预测的后果。
符合温度条件的前提下,乳液型粘合剂完全固化需要7天,接触性粘合剂安装完毕即可以用,反应型粘合剂完全固化需要2-5天,双面胶安装的地板,在安装完毕即可使用。需要注意的是,国内的双面胶并非为地板安装而设计,未经测试,不可用于PVC地板安装。
条目4.4.1 PVC地板粘结
刮齿28cm宽,确实可以提升工作效率,但是涂布时很难保证均匀度。粘合剂涂布不均匀,较薄处已过可施工时间,厚层聚集处尚处于晾胶时间。此时粘贴,厚层聚集处残留较多水份,粘贴地板以后容易出现气泡状突起。
条目4.4.5 PVC地板的导电性粘结
国内施工导电PVC地板的情况非常糟糕。首先导电铜箔条的位置放错了,导电铜箔放置在粘合剂层之下,这是原则。铜箔比粘合剂层电阻小,粘合剂层比PVC导电地板电阻小。电阻小的放置在下层。国内把铜箔条放在了粘合剂层之上.属于严重错误。
PVC地板安装
为了降低成本,国内发明了“碳粉“导电,在普通粘合剂中加入炭黑,现场搅拌后使用。炭黑并不一定导电,不是所有的炭黑都是导电的。施工人员买来的炭黑往往是不导电的。他们甚至在铜箔条上撒炭黑增加导电性。这种胡作非为的做法是有问题的。
条目4.5.1 热焊
热焊必须在地板粘贴后至少24小时以后进行。焊接时间过早,粘合剂没有固化,缝隙中堆积的粘合剂中残留水份被焊条封闭在缝隙中,必然造成起鼓。
 
 
Installation of PVC Flooring
Table of Contents
1. Introduction
2. Classification of PVC Floor Coverings according to European Standards
3. Adhesives for PVC Flooring
3.1 Adhesive Types
3.1.1 Dispersion Adhesives
3.1.2 Reaction Resin Adhesives
3.1.3 Solvent-based Contact Adhesives
3.1.4 Dry Adhesives
3.2 Selection of Adhesive Type
4. Installation of PVC Flooring
4.1 Substrate
4.2 Storage and Conditioning
4.3 Installation Conditionis
4.4 Bonding
4.4.1 Bonding of PVC Flooring
4.4.2 Bonding of flexible Tiles and PVC Flooring in Tiles
4.4.3 Bonding of PVC Flooring in Sheets includinsg Seam Edge Cutting
4.4.4 Bonding of Profiles
4.4.5 Conductive Bonding of PVC Flooring
4.4.5.1 Conductive Bonding on Copper Strip Grid
4.4.5.2 Conductive Bonding on transverse conductive Layer
4.4.5.3 Conductive Bonding for double Requirements
4.4.5.4 Conductive Floor Coverings with conductive Backing
4.4.6 Bonding of PVC Flooring on Underlays
4.5 Seam Sealing
4.5.1 Thermal Sealing
4.5.2 Cold Welding
5. Relevant Standards and technical Briefing Notes
5.1 Industrial Safety
5.2 Standards for PVC Flooring
5.3 Standards for Adhesives used for Installation of PVC Flooring
5.4 Standards for Flooring Installation
5.5 TKB technical Briefing Notes
5.6 Other Standards and Information Sheets
5.7 Literature and Commentaries
1. Introduction
This technical briefing note advises the installer on selection of installation materials for PVC flooring. It contains information on the different types of PVC flooring, classified according to the relevant European standards. When installing PVC flooring, the specific characteristics of the different flooring types must be taken into consideration. Adhesive types are classified relative to composition, type of processing and setting behaviour.
This technical briefing note does not deal with installation  of  PVC  flooring  on  special constructions such as sports or industrial floors.
2. Classification of PVC Flooring according to European Standards
PVC flooring is made from polyvinyl chloride, mineral  aggregates,  pigments, lasticizers, stabilizers and other additives. It is available in sheets, tiles and flooring elements/planks and is glued down during installation. Other installation methods are not described in this technical briefing note.
PVC flooring is manufactured in many different forms and designs. Classification of the different PVC floorings is described in various European standards:
. Homogeneous and heterogeneous polyvinyl chloride floor coverings without underlay   according to DIN EN 649
. PVC flooring with a backing made from either polyester felt or jute or a combination polyester   felt/PVC according to DIN EN 650
PVC flooring with foam layer according to DIN EN 651
PVC flooring with cork backing according to DIN EN 652
expanded (cushioned) polyvinyl chloride PVC flooring according to DIN EN 653
flexible PVC tiles according to DIN EN 654
PVC flooring with increased particle-based slip resistance according to DIN EN 13845
3. Adhesives for PVC Flooring
3.1 Types of Adhesives
3.1.1 Dispersion Adhesives
Dispersion adhesives consist of organic binding materials dispersed in water, inorganic fillers and additives. Setting takes place based on a physical process when the water contained in the adhesive evaporates. The setting properties of dispersion adhesives are mainly influenced by the climatic conditions of the installation environment. High temperatures and/or low humidity accelerate, low temperatures and/or high humidity delay the setting process.
For dispersion adhesives for one-sided application either wet or pressure sensitive (dry) bonding methods are applied to install PVC flooring. If the pressure sensitive (dry) bonding method shall be used, adhesives must be specifically approved for this process by the manufacturer. Wet bonding requires an absorbent substrate. If substrate is non-absorbent, a floor leveling compound must first be applied with a layer thickness of 2 mm to prepare an absorbent subfloor.
Dispersion contact adhesives are processed using the contact bonding method. They are applied to both sides - prepared substrate and floor covering backing and must have sufficiently aired before installing the floor covering. They are mostly used for small area installations, e.g. installation of baseboards and flooring on stairs.
3.1.2 Reaction Resin Adhesives
Reaction resin adhesives consist of chemically reactive organic binding materials, inorganic fillers and additives. Reaction resin adhesives for PVC flooring are mainly 2-component systems based on polyurethane or epoxy resins and set by chemical reaction. The curing speed of these adhesives is essentially influenced by the temperature of adhesive, substrate and floor covering. 2-component reaction resin adhesives require exact compliance with prescribed mixing ratio and
careful mixing. They only have a limited pot life and open time.
3.1.3 Solvent-based Contact Adhesives
Solvent-based contact adhesives consist of dissolved organic binding materials, highly volatile solvents (up t0 80 %), inorganic fillers and additives. From a work safetysaconsumer and environmental protection perspective, use of these adhesives shall be reduced to the absolute minimum technically necessary.  For all applications, dispersion contact adhesives or dry adhesives are an alternative.
Note:
The German "Gefahrstoffverordnung" (GefStoffV) (Ordinance on Hazardous Substances) and the German "Technische Regel fur Gefahrstoffe (TRGS)  (Technical  Rules  for  Hazardous Substances) 610" massively restrict use of adhesives with high solvent contents for occupational health and safety reasons. The solvents used are highly volatile, flammable and harmful compounds. In case the existing threshold values cannot be safely adhered to, measures prescribed in GefStoftV must be taken.
3.1.4 Dry Adhesives
Dry adhesives are sheets or strips which are self-adhesive on both sides and come in rolls of varying width. Dry adhesives are delivered ready-for-use by the manufacturer and therefore do not require airing, setting or drying time. After proper installation, they are immediately load-bearing.
Use must be coordinated with the respective manufacturer.
3.2. Selection of Adhesive Type
Preferably, PVC flooring is installed using solvent-free, very low emission dispersion adhesives such as EMICODE EC l products with one-sided application (one side adhesives). In addition, dispersion contact adhesives (e.g. for stairs and baseboards), reaction resin adhesives (e.g. on non-absorbent substrates or for high traffic areas) or dry adhesives can be used.
Only use adhesives declared suitable for installation of PVC flooring. Always observe notes
regarding required application quantity or TKB trowel notch sizes.
4. Installation of PVC Flooring
4.1 Substrate
TKB Technical Briefing Note 8 "Assessment and Preparation of Substrates for Installation of Floor Coverings and Parquet" as well as BEB-Merkblatt (BEB-information sheet)  "Beurteilen  und Vorbereiten von Untergrunden. Verlegen von elastischen  und  textilen  Bodenbelagen,
Schichtstoffelementen (Laminat), Parkett und Holzpflaster.   Beheizte   und   unbeheizte
 Fu f3bodenkonstruktionen" (Assessment and preparation of substrates. Installation of elastic and textile floor coverings, laminate, parquet and wood paving.  Heated and non-heated floor constructions) contain detailed instructions and specifications regarding required tests.
4.2. Storage and Conditioning
PVC flooring shall be stored in a dry place at a temperature between 15 0C and 25 0C. Store sheets in rolls in standing position and do not expose to sunlight.  Tiles and flooring elements/planks are stored flat and stacked in boxes, maximum stacking height 8 boxes.
For conditioning before installation, store floor coverings for at least 24 hours at a room temperature of minimum 18 0C. Relative air humidity shall preferably be between 40 - 65 %, however shall not exceed 75 %. For panels, it has been proven beneficial to fan out the individual panels before installation.
4.3 Installation Conditions
The relative air humidity shall preferably be between 40 - 65 %, however it shall not exceed 75 %. Ambient air temperature as well as the temperature of the installation materials, e.g. floor covering and adhesive must be at least 18 0C, substrate must have a minimum temperature of 15 0C.
On the basis of curing, drying and reaction times of the installation materials, the above room climate conditions shall be maintained for 3 days before installation, during and for 7 days after completion of installation work.
If temperatures rise during curing phase of the adhesive, e.g. on account of direct sunlight, dimensional changes of the floor covering may occur. Consequently, flooring and installation materials shall be protected from direct sunlight or other thermal effects before, during and after installation until adhesive has completely cured. Only after adhesive is completely cured shall furniture of any kind be placed on flooring.
4.4 Bonding
4.4.1 Bonding of PVC Flooring
For bonding, the adhesives mentioned under item 3 shall be used. Guidelines of flooring and adhesive manufacturers shall always be observed. One-side dispersion adhesives are applied to substrate using the recommended TKB trowel notch size. It is recommended to work with an 18 or 21 cm wide notched trowel. Using a 28 cm wide notched trowel might lead to the formation of adhesive pooling with resulting bubble-like convexities. PVC flooring can be installed with the wet or pressure sensitive (dry) bonding method depending on substrate and suitability of the adhesive.
Wet bonding method:
On absorbent substrates, the PVC flooring is placed in the still wet adhesive bed after short air drying time. Always observe open time, i.e. the period during which the back of the flooring can be fully wetted with adhesive.
Pressure sensitive (dry) bonding method:
The pressure sensitive (dry) bonding method can be used on absorbent as well as on non-absorbent substrates if manufacturer has not issued any restrictions.  For non-absorbent substrates, preferably use TKB trowel notch sizes with low adhesive consumption to minimize risk of residual indentations. With this method, the flooring is placed in the adhesive bed which is fully air-dried.
On dense, non-absorbent substrates check by finger testing if a dry and surface tacky adhesive film has formed (to avoid water ingress). When lightly touching the adhesive bed with the fingertip, no adhesive shall stick to finger. This "pressure sensitive bonding phase" is rather limited and is influenced by climatic conditions. Flooring must be placed in adhesive bed during pressure sensitive bonding period. With pressure sensitive bonding, the risk of unavoidable residual indentations is higher than with the wet bonding method. For both methods, the time when flooring is placed in adhesive bed depends on the prevailing climatic conditions in installation room.
lrrespective of the chosen bonding method, immediately after flooring has been placed in adhesive bad, it is rubbed down from the middle to the outside using a carpet-covered cork panel to prevent air pockets. At the end of the waiting time specified by the adhesive manufacturer, the flooring is rolled down using a multi-sectional roller with a minimum weight of 50 kg. This ensures optimum wetting of the floor covering backing. Start the rolling process from the centre to the outside and repeat this process after 30 – 60 minutes.
General note:
Residual indentations caused by high punctual loads visible under a spotlight can never be completely avoided with resilient flooring. However, they can be minimized by selecting the right adhesive, application quantity (use of TKB recommended notched trowel with suitable notch sizes), proper processing and choice of appropriate chair/furniture sliders (large and level contact surface, no sharp edges) and/or use suitable pressure distribution underlay under movable furniture or rollers (type W according to EN 12529).
4.4.2 Installation of flexible Tiles and PVC Flooring in Tiles
When installing tiles, always observe manufactures instructions concerning laying direction. For measurement, always make sure of even space distribution subject to off cuts. The first tiles are loosely positioned along the defined reference line (line out) and adhesive is then applied starting from here. For adjoining rooms, laying direction should be followed. To best prevent residual indentations during use, PVC design flooring shall be installed with the wet bed method. On non-absorbent substrates only reaction resin or dry adhesives or pressure sensitive bonding can be used according to manufacturer’s instructions.  After PVC floor covering has been laid, it must be rubbed down.
4.4.3 Installation of PVC Flooring in Sheets including Seam Edge Cutting
The seam edges of the sheet lengths must be cut since only cleanly cut seams will guarantee clean joints. The first sheet edge is straightened using a strip cutter or edge cutter. For the second sheet there are two methods:
(a) For small rooms (before application of the adhesive):
An already cut length of sheet is placed on top of another length which is then cut along the        edge of the upper length. The resulting strip is then cut off in the opposite direction using a     hooked blade.
(b) For large rooms (after application of the adhesive):
The upper length of sheet is cut using a scriber or linocut along the edge of the lower     sheet already placed in the adhesive bed, the resulting strip is cut off with hooked blade.
After the individual lengths have been cut, the so-called guidance length is folded back by half making sure of a big radius in order to prevent fold marks in the flooring. For the following sheet length, the course of the seam is marked on the substrate for orientation purposes. After the remaining lengths have been folded back, a straight line is marked with a line or steel ruler directly in front of the folding edge. It is recommended to put down mask in tape along the line which is then removed immediately before adhesive is applied for the second half of the length. Starting at the tape, adhesive is evenly spread using the recommended TKB notched trowel size. The folded back lengths are then slid into the fresh adhesive over a length of approximately 10 cm. This offers the advantage that adhesive is still relatively fresh when the second length is processed and clearly visible marks of area on flooring surface are mostly avoided.
After appropriate airing time the guidance length is lined up along the marking. All flooring length is then slid into adhesive bed avoiding air pockets. The top ends might have to be decaled and pulled down. Next, the flooring is rubbed and rolled down as described under item 4.4.1.
After waiting time specified by adhesive manufacturer, the flooring is rolled down over the entire area.
After the second half of the length has been folded back, adhesive is applied starting at the previously applied adhesive layer. Always avoid applying two layers of adhesive in the same area since it may show after installation. The next steps are identical to those of the first half of the sheet.
4.4.4 Bonding of Profiles
Dry or dispersion contact adhesives are recommended for bonding of profiles. When using these adhesives, the elements to be glued must be fitted exactly since subsequent corrections are almost impossible to perform. After installation, the elements must be immediately pressed and tapped down firmly over the entire length.
4.4.5 Conductive Bonding of PVC Flooring
The requirements for the electrostatic behavior of a floor can vary according to the intended use of the room. A distinction is made between insulating, anti-static and conductive PVC flooring.
Conductive PVC flooring requires the use of a conductive adhesive.
PVC flooring and adhesive are installed on a conductive system, which subsequently must be properly grounded. Adequate connections must be available on site. Connection of the conductive system to ground is performed via a copper strip and shall only be executed by a qualified electrician.
4.4.5.1 Conductive Bonding on Copper Strip Grid
Conduction is performed via a copper strip installed centered under each length or tile row. The ends of the copper strips shall be connected with each other. The position of the copper strips shall be marked using a line. The conductive adhesive is applied in a thin coat along the line using a Japan spreader; the strip is installed and covered with another thin layer of adhesive to avoid that edges will show later. Every 30 m2, a connection is required for potential equalization (qualified electrician).
Next, the conductive PVC flooring is installed using a conductive adhesive.
4.4.5.2 Conductive Bonding on a transverse conductive Layer
A transverse conductive layer is created by applying a conductive dispersion primer over the entire area. In this case, the copper strip grid described above is not required. Every approx. 30 m2, a connection with a l m long copper strip is required for potential equalization (qualified electrician). For large areas, the distance between the indmdual copper strips shall not exceed 8 – 10 m.  Since a transverse conductive layer considerably reduces absorbency of the substrate, installation is normally performed with pressure sensitive (dry) bonding method.
4.4.5.3 Conductive Bonding with double Requirements
For conductive bonding with an additional transition resistance RST according to VDE 0100,
an electrical minimum resistance o~50,000 0hm is required to protect users. In any case, instructions of flooring manufacturer must be observed. The crucial factor is to match conductivity of the flooring and the adhesive. The substrate shall be sufficiently dry, since moisture may result in minimum resistance not being met. Every 30 m2 a connection with a l m long copper strip is required for potential equalization (qualified electrician).
4.4.5.4 Conductive Flooring with conductive Backing
For conductive flooring in sheets with a conductive layer on the back, bonding and rounding can also be performed only at the top end of the sheet in overlap, perpendicular to the sheet direction depending on manufacturer's instructions. Every 30 n12 a connection for potential equalization is required (qualified electrician). Tile flooring is basically bonded over the entire area using a conductive adhesive.
4.4.6 Bonding of PVC Flooring on Underlays
Basically, a combination of flooring and underlay has different technical properties than the flooring alone.
The manufacturers of the PVC floor covering and the underlay must be contacted regarding functionality of the respective combination. During installation it shall be ensured that the edges of underlay and PVC sheet flooring are not congruent.  Depending on manufacturer’s instructions, the underlay shall be leveled using either dispersion floor leveling compounds or
2-component polyurethane floor leveling compounds.
Basically, all flooring must be welded.
4.5. Seam Sealing
Sealing of the seams is always recommended in commercial areas or when floor covering is exposed to constantly changing temperatures (e.g. underfloor heating). With substrates sensitive to moisture (e.g. wood composite panels or calcium sulfate floors), in rooms where industrial wet cleaners are used (e.g. cleaning units), in hygiene areas and areas where moisture is brought in from the outside (entrances), seams must always be welded. Welding shall only take place after adhesive has completely cured. Depending on type of adhesive and room climate, this may take several days.  Please always observe manufacturer's instructions.
The longer the waiting time, the lower the risk of damage and separation in joint area. Design flooring and semi-flexible polyvinyl chloride tiles are never welded.
4.5.1 Thermal Welding
PVC flooring can be thermally welded using a PVC welding cord suited for the respective flooring type. When using a 4 mm welding cord, the seam edges are cut using a 3.3 mm wide parabolic cutting blade to a death of approx. 2/3 0f the floor covering thickness. For flooring with foam backing cut only to the foam. In the area of the wall connection, open floor covering using a hand groover. Joint width shall not exceed 3.5 mm. Then clean the groove thoroughly (vacuum or clean with blow jet).
The welding cord can either be inserted into the joints with a welding machine or a hand welder with attached speed welding nozzle – with consistent pressure and speed. The connection between welding cord and flooring is only achieved when adhering to the welding temperature specified by flooring manufacturer. In order to minimize damage to flooring surface, e.g. with surface finishes a welding nozzle with narrow air outlet shall be selected.
Excess material is removed in two steps
. The first removal step is performed when welding cord has not yet cooled down using a sharp quarter moon knife with trim guide attached.
.   The second step takes place only after joint has completely cooled down - excess is removed
  flush to flooring surface, also using a quarter moon knife.
If no quarter moon knife is at hand, an appropriate trimming knife can be used which will only work in the joint area when removing excess welding cord.
4.5.2 Cold Welding
As an alternative to thermal welding, PVC flooring can also be welded using a cold welding agent.
One prerequisite for this method is that seams are densely cut and clean. To protect the flooring surface, the seam is covered with a thin adhesive tape. The adhesive tape is then carefully cut open right above the seam using a knife. The cold welding agent is pressed into the joint with an appropriate special nozzle and the adhesive tape is then immediately removed. For at least 3 hours, do not put any load on the freshly welded area.
5. Relevant Standards and Information Sheets
In the following, relevant standards and other technical briefing notes are listed. They represent the current versions at time of publication of this technical briefing note.
5.1 Industrial Safety
Gefa h rstoffverordnung (GefStoffV), Published December 23, 2004 (BGBI. I S 3758), amended by article 2 0f the ordinance of December 18, 2008 (BGBI. I S 2768) TRGS 430 lsocyanate  -Gefahrdungsbeurteilung  und Schutzmaf3nahmen (March 2009); Ausschuss fur Gefahrstoffe (AGS); GMBI No. 18/19 (04.05.2009)
5.2 Standards for PVC Flooring
DIN EN 649
Resilient floor coverings - Homogeneous and heterogeneous polyvinyl chloride floor coverings -Specification 01-2004
DIN EN 650
Resilient floor coverings - polyvinyl chloride floor coverings on jute backing or on polyester felt
backing or on polyester felt with polyvinyl chloride backing – Specification 01-1997
DIN EN 651
Resilient floor coverings - polyvinyl chloride floor coverings with foam layer – Specification 01-2004
DIN EN 652
Resilient floor coverings - polyvinyl chloride floor coverings with cork-based backing – pecification 01-1997
DIN EN 653
Resilient floor coverings - expanded (cushioned) polyvinyl chloride floor coverings – Specification 01-1997
DIN EN 654
Resilient floor coverings - semi-flexible polyvinyl chloride tiles – Specification 01-2004
DIN EN 12466
Resilient floor coverings – Vocabulary 06-1998
DIN EN 13845
Resilient floor coverings - polyvinyl chloride floor coverings with particle-based enhanced slip resistanycoe – Specification 10-2005
DIN EN 14041
Resilient, textile and laminate floor coverings -essential characteristics 05-2008
5.3 Standards for Adhesives used in Installation of PVC Floor Coverings
DIN EN 14259
Adhesives for floor coverings - requirements for mechanical and electrical behavior 07-2004
DIN EN 1372
Adhesives - Test method for adhesives for floor and wall covering adhesives - Peel test October 1999
DIN EN 1903
Adhesives - Test method for adhesives for plastic or rubber floor coverings or wall coverings -Determination of dimensional changes after accelerated aging June 2008
DIN EN 13415
Test of adhesives for floor coverings -Determination of electrical resistance of adhesive films and composites August 2002
5.4 Standards for Floor Installation Work
DIN 18365
VOB  Vergabe-  und  Vertragsordnung  fur Bauleistungen - Teil C: Allgemeine Technische Vertragsbedingungen fur Bauleistungen (ATV) -Allgemeine Regelungen fur Bauarbeiten aller Art –Bodenbelagsarbeiten October 2006
5.5 TKB Technical Briefing Notes
TKB-Technical Briefing Note 6
Trowel notch sizes for floor coverings, wood flooring and tiles May 2007
TKB- Technical Briefing Note 8
Assessment and preparation of substrates for installation of floor coverings and parquet June 2004
TKB- Technical Briefing Note 9
Technical specification and installation of floor leveling compounds April 2008
5.6 Other Standards and Information Sheets
The details and information in this technical briefing note are based on our best knowledge and current state of the art. They are provided for informational purposes only and as a non-binding guideline without representation or warranty of any kind. When in doubt, test installations shall be performed. Recommendations and instructions of flooring and adhesive manufacturers always take precedence.